Two Waters, in Hertfordshire, took out a patent in 1827, for an endless web of wire, that will produce the same kind of water-marks as are exhibited in the laid paper. The warp, consisting of the small wires, is put into the loom in the usual way, until the reed is filled to the width required. A wooden or metal roller, about five inches in diameter, containing in a line firmly fixed as many metallic pegs as there are large water lines required in the paper: these pegs stand out from the roller about a quarter of an inch, and answer to corresponding large divisions left in the reed. The large warp is then placed on to each of these pegs, and round the roller, until a sufficient length is obtained: the ends are then passed through the front harness, placed somewhat higher than the small harness, and from thence through the large divisions in the reed, where the ends are made fast to stout iron rods. In this manner both warps are drawn tight, and the weaving is executed by the usual process. The superior thickness of the wires of the large warp causes them to project, and to produce the coarse water lines in the paper made with it.
About the same period of time, Messrs. J. and C. Phipps, of London, took out a patent for a different mode of producing the laid paper impressions in a machine, which is of easy application to a Fourdriniers' machine, as it consists simply in. the addition to the latter of a revolving cylinder, which impresses the peculiar water lines required upon the wove paper as the latter is received upon the felt. For this purpose, the cylinder is formed of wooden discs at the ends, and concentric rings, and turns on a central iron axle. Over the periphery of the cylinder, the same kind of wire-work as the laid paper moulds are made of, is wound round, and carefully joined at the seam. This cylinder is mounted over the felt, so as to rest its weight upon it, by turning loosely in vertical slots, made in brass bearings on the side frames of the machine; the wire-work, therefore, passing upon the newly-made wet paper on the felt, produces the required water lines.
Mr. George Dickenson, of Buckland mill, near Dover, who has shown equal skill and perseverance in improving the mechanism of the paper manufacture, for which he has had many patents, obtained one in 1828, which, combining several previous improvements, we shall here describe. In the machines we have already noticed, it will be observed that a lateral or horizontal motion is given to the endless web of wire for felting the fibres, and separating the water from the pulp. The leading objects of this invention are to give a rapid vibration to the wire web in a vertical direction, and by rarefying the air underneath the wire web, cause the atmosphere to press upon the superior surface of the paper, by which a farther portion of the water is driven through the paper into the rarefied apartment underneath, and thus the paper is more speedily and effectually dried. From this account, somewhat of the nature of the machine may be understood. We will now describe the arrangements more particularly, with reference to the accompanying engravings. The engraving on the next page exhibits side elevations of two distinct machines, which are brought into action together; they are marked Fig. 1, Fig. 2, and Fig. 3, which follows it, exhibits a longitudinal section of the exhausting cylinder only.
In Fig. 1, a a wooden frame supporting the whole; b b b an iron frame secured to a similar one on the opposite side by a rod at top, and a bar at the end, and vibrating on a pivot c; d a cylinder, revolving on a fixed axis e; f 1 and f 2 band wheels, which give motion to the cylinder d by a toothed wheel on the axis of f 1, shown by dots, which takes into another toothed wheel on the cylinder d; g a cylinder revolving in pivots, supported by the frame bb; ha roller set in motion by the pinion (shown) driven by the toothed wheel on d, and which takes into another wheel on the end of the roller h; k another roller turning in grooves by being placed in contact with the revolving roller h; lll an endless web of wire passing over the cylinders d and g, also betwixt the rollers h and k, md over the tightening rollers m and n, the latter of which is movable by a screw, in order to regulate the tension; o o a series of rollers supporting the wire web, and revolving upon spindles in notches cut in the side rails, attached to the frame bb; p a stout piece of brass called the deckle, placed on each side of the machine, over the wire web, and supported by the cross bars gg, which can be raised or lowered by screws in side pieces attached to the frame b b; rr the deckle straps, revolving over pulleys attached to each end of the deckle, also over similar pulleys on the axis of f 1, and under a pulley s, dipping into a vessel of water; the straps confine the pulp at the sides of the web, and regulate the width of the paper, which is according to the distance the deckles are asunder; tt tightening rollers, to tighten the deckle straps; v a large band wheel, driven by the prime mover, and driving the smaller band wheel w; the latter carries a crank (not seen) set three-eighths of an inch out of the centre of the axis of the wheel, but which eccentricity can be altered at pleasure; a a connecting rod attached to the crank and to the frame b, causing the latter to rise and fall three-quarters of an inch at each revolution of the wheel w; y an iron stand, and supporting the spring z, upon which the frame b strikes at each descent of the connecting rod x, and thus assists the crank. 1 a pulp-box, attached to the frame b, and extending the whole width of the wire web; to the front board is attached a piece of leather, which descends on to the wire web, and distributes the pulp equally over the web; 2 a thin piece of board, set edgeways upon the wire-web between the deckles, and keeping back the bubbles of air and water in the pulp; 3 a fixed pulp-box, which feeds the box 1, and regulates the quantity therein; 4 a pipe leading from the cylinder d to the air pump.