(1) Pewter pots of various sizes, suitable to the quantity of mixture to be frozen. Tin or zinc will not do, as they congeal the mixture without allowing it time to become properly incorporated, and form it in lumps like hailstones. (2) } pint, pint, 1 1/2 pint, and quart pewter moulds, and some in the form of fruits to open in the centre with a hinge. (3) Ice pails, adapted to the size of the pots, about the same depth, and 8 or 10 in. more in diameter; if even greater, it is immaterial, the depth being the principal consideration; the deeper it is, the greater caution is required to prevent the salt from entering the mixture, for as the ice dissolves, the pot descends, and the water runs under the cover, which, being salt, spoils the contents. There should be a hole near the bottom, with a cork fitted in, to be withdrawn at pleasure, that the water may be run off when there is too much. (4) The spatula is an instrument somewhat resembling a gardener's spade, made of stout tinned copper, the blade about 4 in. long by 3 in width, round at the end, and having a socket to receive a wooden handle; it is for scraping the cream from the sides of the pot as it freezes, and for mixing. (5) A large mortar and pestle, or a strong box and mullet for pounding the ice. (6) A spade to mix the ice and salt, fill pails, etc. (7) A tin case with a drawer to be drawn out at pleasure, and having shelves or divisions for keeping ices in the form of fruits, after they are finished, until required.
Freezing is accomplished by means of various mixtures. As a general rule, take about 2 lb. salt to every 6 lb. ice. The more salt mixed with the ice, the quicker are the creams frozen. Pound sufficient ice small, and well mix some salt with it; place the pot con-tuning the mixture in a pail, fill the latter with pounded ice and salt as far as the lid; strew a handful of salt on the top of the ice, let remain a few minutes until you have similarly disposed of others, as 3 or 4 may be done at a time, whirl round briskly by means of the handles for 5 minutes, take off the lids one at a time, and with the spatula stir or carry the unfrozen part well round the sides, turning the pot also with the left hand; continue this for 2 or 3 minutes, which serves to soften what has already frozen, as well as helps to freeze the remaining portion; then- scrape from the sides, put on the lids, whirl round again briskly as before directed, repeating the same operations every 4 or 5 minutes. As it forms, do . not spare labour in working or mixing it together when you scrape it down, so as to make it perfectly smooth and free from lumps, for the smoothness depends on this operation; continue to freeze until the whole is well set.
Ice well frozen should be about the consistence, of butter, tough to the feel, of a good colour, and without any lumps in it. Those containing too much syrup cannot be frozen to the degree required, and those with too little freeze hard, and feel short and crisp like compressed or frozen snow, which arises from having too many watery particles, by the excess of water or milk. It may be ascertained when freezing commences, by the first coat which is formed round the sides. It should then be altered by either adding more cream or water, with juice or pulp of fruit, or other flavouring matter, in proportion, as the case may be, if too rich, and vice versa, by the addition of more syrup, etc, when poor; but at all times the necessity of altering should be avoided, as the component parts cannot be so perfectly blended without considerable extra labour, as if they were properly mixed at the commencement. During the freezing, or after the creams are moulded and set up, if there is too much water in the pail, the frigorific power is lessened; a little increases it, as at first it is only a solution of the salt; but as the ice dissolves and mixes with it, it decreases; therefore, when it comes to the top, drain the water off, and fill up with fresh salt and ice.
When the ices are properly frozen, take out the pots, drain off the water, empty the pail; again replace and fill with fresh salt and ice as before, spread the creams over the sides of the pot, when they are ready for use, if intended to be served in a shop, or by glassfuls. For moulds, line the bottom with a piece of paper before you put it on; if there is no impression or figure on the top, you may cover that also with paper; in filling, press well in, so as to fill every part; leave a little projecting above the surface to form the top, which you put on; pack the moulds in a pail, and fill the vacancies with pounded ice well mixed with plenty of salt; strew a handful also on the top. Ices should be moulded 1/2 to 1 hour before they are served. To turn them out, wash the mould well in cold water that no salt may remain on; take off the bottom and top, and the ice will come cut easily. For fruit moulds, fill each with cream or water ice of the same kind as you would represent, and preserve the stone with the stalk and leaves of each, which put in their proper places, allowing the leaves to project outside; close the mould, wrap in paper, and place in ice as others; to turn out, wash the shape in lukewarm water to take off the paper, and be careful not to injure the leaves, as they will often be found frozen to it; dip again in water, open and take out the ice; colour to nature with camel's-hair pencils and liquid colour; the down or bloom is represented by dusting with dry colour powder tied in a small muslin bag, or by means of a dry camel's-hair pencil; line the shelves of the case with paper or vine leaves, and put in the fruit as it is finished; let the case be surrounded with pounded ice and salt, as for moulds.