A. (A) The following formula is said to have been in use in 1654, and to have produced an ink of great permanency, if one may judge from manuscript written by the person who is the authority for the formula: 1 1/2 dr. coarse-powdered galls, 1 1/2 dr. sulphate of iron, 10 dr. gum-arabic, and 1 pint soft water, are to be placed in a bottle, which is to be securely stoppered and placed in the light (sunlight if possible). Stir the contents occasionally until the gum and copperas are dissolved, after which the bottle should be shaken daily. In the course of 4-6 weeks the ink will be fit for use. The addition of 10 drops carbolic acid will prevent the formation of mould.

(I) Blue-Black Writing Fluid

Digest together for a fortnight 18 oz. bruised galls, 1/2 oz. bruised cloves, in 10 wine pints water. Press and filter. Add to the clear liquid 6 oz. sulphate of iron and 2 fl. dr. sulphuric acid, shaking well until solution is effected. Next add 1 oz. indigo paste, and filter if necessary. The ink must be kept in well-corked bottles, and it should bo made in vessels of glass or stoneware. (Can. Phar. Jl).

(k) A good black ink can be made with the following ingredients : - 2 lb. galls (in moderately fine powder), 10 1/2 oz. copperas; 10 oz. gum-arabic; 1 1/2 oz. sugar. Water sufficient to make 18 pints. Place the galls in an enamelled vessel, pour on it 6 pints boiling water, and allow it to macerate 2 days; transfer to a glass percolator, in the neck of which is a piece of absorbent cotton, through which allow the liquid portion to drain. When this is accomplished, pack the galls firmly, and displace with sufficient water to produce 2 gal. with that portion "of the infusion which first passed. Then dissolve the gum and sugar in 2 pints water; add this and the copperas to the infusion of galls. This, after standing about 12 days, will produce a very superior ink. About 8 drops wood creosote should be added to prevent moulding.

(l) Bruised nutgalls, 12 parts; copperas (slightly calcined), 4 parts; gum arabic, 4 parts; water, 120 parts. Mix them together in a stone bottle, and let them stand for 2-3 weeks, shaking the bottle from time to time. Then pour off the clear liquor, and add a little creosote to prevent mouldiness,

C. (g) pyrogallic acid, 1 part; pulv. gum arabic, 3 parts; ammonia vanadiate, 3 parts. These to be mixed in a mortar and sufficient water to be added. This forms an intensely black ink.

Copying Ink. (k) Nigrosine ink may be used for copying, if the gelatin and bichromate are omitted. The following will be good proportions :

Nigrosine...100 grains

Water..... 61/4fl. oz.

Glycerin... 3 3/4 fl. oz.

(I) A better copying ink is obtained by reducing any good iron ink by evaporation, and adding some glycerin:

Black iron ink . 10 volumes Reduce by evaporation to 6 „ and add

Glycerin ... 4 „

(m) Another good copying ink which is said to yield 3-5 good impressions, is prepared, according to Bottger, as follows:

Extract of logwopd . 64 parts

Soda.... 10 „

Chromate of potassium . 2 „

Glycerin.... 64 „

Gum arabic ... 16 „

Water .... 270 „

Dissolve the extract of logwood, together with the soda in the water, add the glycerin and gum arabic, and finally add the chromate (not bichromate) of potassium dissolved in a very small quantity of boiling water. The ink may be used at once.

(N) For Readily Transcribing Letters Without A Press

For the past thirteen years all letters, reports, etc, that I have written have been transcribed into an ordinary thin-paper copying-book with no more effort than is employed in using a piece of blotting paper. It has only been necessary to place the page of writing, note size, letter size, or even foolscap, in the letter-book, and use a leaf of the letter-book just as one would use a leaf of blotting paper. The superfluous ink that would go into blotting paper goes on to the leaf of the letter-book, and, showing through the thin paper as usual, gives, on the other side of the leaf, a perfect transcript of the letter. Any excess of ink on the page, either of the letter or of the copying paper, is removed by placing a sheet of blotting paper between thera and running one's hand firmly over the whole in the ordinary manner.

This ready transcription is accomplished, as will be anticipated, by using ink which dries slowly. Indeed, obviously, the ink must dry sufficiently slowly for the characters at the top of a page of writing to remain wet when the last line is written, whileit must dry sufficiently fast to preclude any chance of the copied page being smeared while subsequent pages are being covered. The drying must also be sufficiently rapid to prevent the characters "setting off," as printers term it, from one page to another after folding.

Now to manufacture ink that shall dry at the rate and in the manner just indicated, no matter what the size of the page of writing or how quickly or slowly it be written, no matter whether the air at the time be dry or moist, or the writing paper be unglazed, porous and absorbent, or highly glazed, close and non-absorbent, is impossible. Evaporation proceeds by laws which man can neither suspend nor hasten. Thin up-strokes written with any variety of ink inevitably dry quicker than the thick down-strokes written with the same ink, no matter what the wishes or requirements of the writer. Hence there are defects in my copying ink which are inherent, and, I fear, irremediable. In short, probably no variation in the mode of manufacture of copying ink of this character would result in a writing fluid which could be used by all persons at all times under all circumstances. Still the ink has been of the greatest service to me myself, and should be equally useful to others. In purchasing writing paper, it is easy to avoid the excessively porous or the very highly glazed.