This improved form of smoking pipe is introduced to notice, primarily to provide a means of combating the smoker's habit, and to do away with the injurious element in it to which its baneful effects are due, by abstracting the noxious constituents of tobacco smoke, whilst leaving the aromatic principles unaffected, thereby •making it available for daily use by delicate or invalid smokers, to whom total prohibition would often be little short of a punishment. The so-called "smoker's heart and concomitant cardaic troubles," "smoker's amaurosis," "smoker's sore -throat," and other laryngeal, pharyngeal, and nasal diseases exemplify this, and such cases may be permitted the use of their tobacco from this pipe at a time when possibly it could not be allowed from any of the ordinary kinds. Secondly the pipe may be made useful as a means of turning to practical account, and utilising the habit of smoking as an adjunct to treatment by inhalation of volatile medicaments, so that the vapour of the remedy employed may be directed to the affected surfaces.

Tobacco smoke is a mixture of several volatile ingredients, the chief of these being (a) the volatile liquid alkaloid nicotina or nicotine, which is a colourless oil at ordinary temperature, but volatilises at 480° F.; (6) a volatile oil nicotianin or tobacco camphor; (c) volatile aromatic principles; (d) watery vapour. The action of smoking as a nervous stimulant is probably not due to the nicotine itself, but to the stimulus of the smoke on the sensory nerves of the mouth and nares, which reflexly stimulates the vase-motor centre, and so dilates the vessels of the brain. Hence the desirability of getting rid of the nicotine. In the "therapeutic " pipe principles for removing the nicotine are carried into practical effect. A reference to Fig. 325 will show that the pipe by a modification in the boring is divided into the three chambers E, C, and that occupied by the fitting B, E being the bowl for tobacco, C a chamber below E, and occupied by the "radiator" A, which is simply a box with a perforated top and bottom, and fits tightly on the bush on the under surface of the bowl by means of a projecting rim.

If this box be filled with any fine powder, all the smoke passing through the interstices will come in contact with the particles of powder and be robbed of its heat, which is carried away by radiation through the pipe head. If the powder be a volatile one, this fact is available for therapeutic purposes. The smoke next enters the "smoke chamber" C, where it is further cooled. Thereafter it passes along the tube-like chamber contained in the stem, and occupied by Ihe " accumulator " B, B, which consists of a bundle of prepared fibres about 3 in. long, and by the contiguity of the fibres to each other this bundle forms a series of capillary tubes. I have obtained smoke absolutely free from acridity. D is a cup Tor drainage. Both the fittings A and B are readily replaced by new ones when eihausted, so that a pipe which is always clean is not the least of the considerations to be borne in mind. To make it effective aa a therapeutic agent, the patient should be instructed to exhale the medicated smoke through the nose, by which act it ia carried into the pharynx. Chloride of ammoniam, tannic acid, salicylic acid, benzoic acid, and sulphur, have all yielded satisfactory results, especially the first two.

Another passible use of the pipe is that of an insufflator, for by taking out the accumulator B, and charging either the radiator A, or the empty stem with the powder to be insufflated, and then without using tobacco, perform the act of smoking, the current set up will carry the powder well back into the fauces, the suction greatly facilitating this. (C. W. Jones.)

Theraputic pipe.

Theraputic pipe.

Hoakah-Fig. 326 shows hookah complete. A, a special meerschaum bowl; D, a turned piece of wood to fit bi.wl, and left lung eomigh to go into coik; C, a good, sound. tight-fitting 101b; T, a glass tube about (-In. diameter, fitted into bottom of D, and of surh a length as to be about 1 1/2 in. above bottom of waier-bottle, vase, etc, G; T, a small piece of tube (glass) 1/4-in, diamefer, put through cork, and projecting about 1/2 in. under cork; S, the "snake" or tube (rubber 7/10,-1/2 in. diameter) attached to T; B, the mouthpiece. Water in bottle should always be about 3 in. below end of tube T; and should be renewed frequently as it soon gets discoloured. Fig. 327 is a section of Fig. 320. Fig. 328 shows pillar D adapted to an ordinary pipe, the mouthpiece being unscrewed, the bowl may be screwed on to face of pillar, instead of Inserting whole item of pipe, as sketched. Fig. 329 shows the hookah, as commonly used in India. A, burnt clay bowl; D, turned wooden pillar; C, coco-nutshell; B, bamboo mouth piece. Water, of marie, below entrance to mouthpiece. The letter refer to same parte in all the sketches.

If the cork can be got sound, and of sufficient length, keep it projecting above neck of bottle, as shown by dotted line in Fig. 327. If sir gets into vessel, and smoke does not come through tube in sufficient quantity, the top of the cork must be varnished,' or have a coat of rubber varnish.

Hookah.

Hookah.

Therapeutic Smoking Pipe 500226