This section is from the book "School Needlework. A Course of Study in Sewing designed for use in Schools", by Olive C. Hapgood. Also available from Amazon: School Needlework: A Course Of Study In Sewing Designed For Use In Schools.
1. Holding the scalloped edge towards you, make a narrow hem at the right-hand end of the lace.
2. Holding the right sides of the lace and cloth together, place the hemmed end of the lace at the top edge of the upper left-hand corner of the cloth.
3. Holding the lace loosely, lightly overhand the edges to within a fourth of an inch of the corner.
4. Run the needle in and out of the cloth, to keep it temporarily secure.
5. Pin the lace at the corner.
Fig. 60. - Showing lace sewed on, and corners turned.
6. Measure the width of the lace, and leaving twice the width, pin again at the corner.
7. One-fourth of an inch beyond the corner, pin the lace to the cloth.
9. Overhand around the corner, bringing the fulness as much as possible at the corner (Fig. 60).
10. Turn the other corner in the same manner, and finish by hemming the end of the lace.
Lace can be sewed on full by dividing the lace and the edge to which it is to be sewed, into halves, quarters, etc.; and running a gathering thread through the edge of the lace, before basting it on. In turning corners, it is better to leave a little more than twice the width of the lace, as there must be enough on the outer edge, to prevent the lace from hooping. With wide lace, leave more than one-fourth of an inch on each side of the corner, for the fulness of the lace.
When measuring for the quantity of edging needed, allow enough for the corners. When the ends of the lace meet, join by a fell.
Hamburg edging is an embroidered edge, made by machinery. It can be sewed on, when no fulness is required, by a fell (page 75), a French seam (page 76), a facing (page 52), or by overhanding; when fulness is required, by a facing (page 52), or by whipping (page 82).
When much wear will come on the edging, it is advisable to overhand it, as it can then be easily removed; the raw edge of the Hamburg should first be overcast with very fine thread. The corners should be turned, and the ends sewed, as with lace.
Ruffles are made of various materials, and are plaited, gathered, or whipped.
No. 8 and No. 9 needles, No. 40, No. 70, and No. 80 thread, pins, scissors, and a piece of cotton cloth six inches long and three inches wide, hemmed at the ends and upper side; for the facing, a piece of cloth six inches long and one and a half inches wide; for the ruffle, a piece of cambric nine inches long and two inches wide, with a very narrow hem at the ends and lower edge. A ruffle faced on.
1. Mark the raw edges of the ruffle and the cloth, by notches, into halves and quarters. Also mark the middle of the facing by a notch.
2. Gather the ruffle.
3. Place the right sides of the cloth and ruffle together, and pin at the corresponding notches.
4. Draw up the gathering thread, and fasten around the pin.
5. Adjust the gathers, and run exactly on the gathering thread.
6. Pin the middle and ends of the facing to the ruffle, and baste.
7. Turn the other side towards you, and half-backstitch close below the running stitches.
8. Take out the basting threads.
9. Turn the facing over and crease it carefully at the seam.
10. Baste and hem the opposite edge of the facing.
A heading on a ruffle can be made by folding the required width for the heading, and gathering it, making one or more rows as desired. The fulness of the ruffle depends upon the material; a narrow cambric ruffle should be about one and a half times the length of the part to which it is to be sewed. In making a ruffle of more than one breadth, the ends should be joined neatly before hemming or gathering.
What is an edging? Of what is lace edging made? How should the lace be held in overhanding? What allowance for fulness should be made in turning a corner? How should lace be sewed on, when fulness is required? What is Hamburg edging? In what ways can it be sewed on, when there is no fulness? When fulness is required? From what are ruffles made? What is first done to the ruffle, the cloth, and the facing?