1. Viola Pedāta L. Bird's-Foot Or Crowfoot Violet

Fig. 2923

Viola pedata L. Sp. Pl. 933. 1753. Viola pedata var. bicolor Pursh; Raf. in DC. Prodr. 1: 291. 1824.

Nearly glabrous; rootstock short, erect; leaves 3-divided, the lateral divisions pe-dately 3-5-parted or -cleft, the segments linear to spatulate, often 2-4-cleft or -toothed near the apex; the leaves of early spring and of late autumn often smaller and less deeply dissected; corolla 3/4'-1 3/4' broad, the upper petals dark violet, the three lower lilac-purple, all beardless; the orange tips of the stamens large and conspicuous at the center of the flower; capsules green, glabrous; seeds copper-colored; apetalous flowers wanting, but petaliferous frequent in late summer and autumn.

In dry fields and open woods, Massachusetts to Minnesota, south to Florida and Louisiana.

Var. lineariloba DC. with all the petals of the same lilac-purple color is the more common form. Sand-, snake-, wood-, horse or horseshoe violet. Pansy. Velvets. April-June.

1 Viola Ped Ta L Bird s Foot Or Crowfoot Violet 12651 Viola Ped Ta L Bird s Foot Or Crowfoot Violet 1266

2. Viola Palmāta L. Early Blue Violet

Fig. 2024

Viola palmata L. Sp. Pl. 933. 1753.

Rootstock thick, usually oblique, sometimes branched; leaves palmately 5-11-lobed or -parted, the segments variously toothed or cleft, the middle segment usually the widest; petioles and veins of the lower surface villous, the upper surface often glabrous; corolla violet-purple, 3/4'-1 1/4' broad, sepals ovate-lanceolate, rather blunt; petaliferous flowers on erect peduncles, cleistogamous on prostrate peduncles, their capsules ovoid, 4"-6" long; seeds brown, 1" long.

Wooded hills in dry rich soil, western Massachusetts to Minnesota, south along the Alleghanies to Florida. A form with the lateral leaf-lobes linear occurs in the region of the Great Lakes. Hand- or hood-leaf violet. Chicken-fighters. Roosters. Johnny-jump-up. April-May.

Viola Egglestonii Brainerd, a glabrous species, the leaf-segments oblanceolate, first known from Tennessee, has recently been found in Kentucky.

2 Viola Palm Ta L Early Blue Violet 1267

3. Viola Stoneāna House. Witmer Stone's Violet

Fig. 2925

Viola septemloba Stone, Proc. Acad. Phila. 1903: 678

Not Le Conte 1826. V. Stoneana House, Bull. Torr. Club 32: 253. 1905.

Glabrous, except for very minute hairs along the margin of the leaves and on the veins; blades, except sometimes the earliest, 3-divided or -parted, the segments 2-3-cleft, the divisions cuneate or oblan-ceolate, acuminate, remotely toothed on the upper half, the middle division the widest, the two lower often lunate and coarsely toothed on the lower margin; mature leaves often io'-I4' high, the blades 3'-4' wide; flowers on peduncles 3-4' high, large, violet, darker toward the throat, lateral petals bearded, spurred petal glabrous; cleistogamous flowers on short horizontal peduncles, their capsules ovoid, blotched with purple; seeds buff.

Moist woodlands, New Jersey, eastern Pennsylvania and Maryland. May.