This section is from the book "A Treatise On Beverages or The Complete Practical Bottler", by Charles Herman Sulz. Also available from Amazon: A Treatise On Beverages.
We extract from the manufacturer's descriptive catalogue the following: "This apparatus consists of two horizontal acid-feeding generators for evolving the gas, three stationary fountains, and a force pump for injecting the fountains with liquid, when they are charged with carbonic acid gas. Its operation is practically continuous, as each generator is used independently of the other, and one is always ready for use as soon as the materials in the first have been exhausted. The connections between the gas-washers are made by means of pipes and joints of hard metal. Each generator, after a period of work, is allowed an equal period of rest, enabling it to recover from the strain to which it is subjected. The generators and fountains are made of gun-metal iron, and tested to five hundred pounds to the square inch. The seamless pressed lead lining in generator, acid chamber, and gas-washer, each half made from a single sheet, has no soldered or burned joints.
These linings are far more durable than those joined by soldered seams, as they are not affected by the acid, and are, in consequence, less liable to leak. The cam-locked acid valve prevents the acid valve from being opened by pressure or accident. The generator agitator of bronze metal is made in one piece, diagonal-braced, and constructed with open centre, so that the acid does not drop on the metal.
"The copper agitator bearings are strong and durable, being made of copper. In the fountains the agitator bearings are covered with block tin of substantial thickness, in order to prevent metallic contamination. The capped flanges on generators, fountains, and other main vessels, add greatly to the strength of the flange, support the linings and packings, and present a neat appearance.
"The flanges of the bung seats in generator and fountain are fitted into recesses and covered with pure tin or solder (tin in the case of foun-tains, and solder for generators), flush with the interior of the apparatus, so that the contents can be thoroughly discharged without lessening its capacity. The bung joint is thus made much stronger, as the solder is confined to the parts requiring the greatest thickness.
"In the lead-lined gas-washer with perforated, volute diaphragm and carbonate filled, any trace of acid which may be carried over from the generator is taken up and neutralized by the marble chips, and is thus utilized in generating more gas, instead of contaminating the beverages, or being merely wasted.
Fig. 145. - Recessed Bung Seat.
Fig. 146. - Lead-lined Gas Washer.
"The seamless pressed tin linings in fountains are more durable than linings with soldered seams, which contaminate the beverages and soon leak. Common jointed tin linings are usually made very thin to economize metal. Pressed seamless linings are necessarily thicker and of uniform temper.
Fig. 147. - Straits Metal Agitator.
Fig. 148. - Oblique Valve.
"The agitator for fountains is of Straits metal, and does not contaminate the beverage.
"The oblique valves, multiple-branched for stationary fountains, are lined throughout with tin of substantial thickness, and the water passages are large, thus insuring the purity and free passage of the beverage.
They are attached to the fountain by a swivel-joint, so that they can be tightened and adjusted without being removed from the fountain, and without the use of extra packings. By their use the number of joints where leakage may occur is greatly reduced. The connecting pipes and fittings for the beverages are of seamless copper, and tin-lined. They do not leak, nor contaminate the beverages. The double stuffing box for fountain agitators, prevents contamination of the beverages by metallic particles worn off the agitator bearings.
Fig. 149. - Atmospheric Cap.
Fig. 150. - Safety Cap.
Fig. 151. - Sectional View of Fig. 150.
"The atmospheric cap is a certain safeguard against the collapsing of the linings of fountains. It is for preventing the formation of a vacuum in the vessel, for as soon as the pressure within falls below the atmospheric pressure, the cap admits air until the pressures are equalized, thus rendering collapse impossible. The glass gauges for stationary fountains are provided with adjustable attachment for registering the height of the liquid in the fountains, so that they can be readily charged with the required amount. They also enable the operator to determine the amount of charged beverage on hand at any time. The Matthews generators are provided with a safety cap, having within it a duplex disk which will sustain a known amount of pressure. If the pressure on the generator exceeds this amount, the disk is ruptured and the gas escapes.
Fig. 152. - Acid Valve.
Fig. 153. - Water Gauge.
"For use on the larger sizes of generators, where it might be inconvenient to reach the lever of the ordinary cam-locked valve, the illustrated acid valve has been substituted.
"The glass water gauges for stationary fountains are provided with adjustable attachment for registering the height of the liquid in the fountains, so that they can be readily charged with the registered amount. They also enable the operator to determine the amount of charged beverage on hand at any time.
"The Matthews pressure gauge, connecting screw and frame in one piece, is attached to such generator, and also to pump.
"The discharge valve forgenerator being swivel-jointed, there is little wear on the packing, which is, therefore, very durable. As the passage is straight, obstructions are rare and easily dislodged.
Fig. 154 - Pressure Gauge.
Fig. 155. - Discharge Valve for Generator.
"The absolute pressure governor is for maintaining an equal pressure upon the fountain so that every bottle may be taken from the machine with a known and equal pressure.
"The carbonate-feeding generator, made by the firm of John Matthews, differs from all others in construction and operation. In other generators the marble or other carbonate soaked with water lies at the bottom of the generator, and the acid must be let down from an elevated acid reservoir, to eliminate the gas. In the Matthews carbonate-feeding generator the carbonate is let down from above, and falls as a powder through the entire depth of the acid and water. Thus the gas is evolved without violent ebullition, and without the agitation necessary to operate other generators. All the carbonate-feeding generators now made are entirely new designs, and are provided with duplex washers with volute diaphragms, which not only wash and purify the carbonic acid, but, by means of the carbonate filling, neutralize any acid vapors which may pass over from the generator. This generator, with two or more fountains on frames, constitutes a complete carbonating apparatus suitable for druggists' or confectioners' use; with several fountains and pump attachment, it constitutes a continuous apparatus.
Fig. 156. - Carbonate-Feeding Generator.
"To charge the generator, close the discharge valve K at the bottom of the generator, and pour into the generator through the bung A, the cap of which is marked 'acid and water,' water and acid in their required proportions. It is best to use a lead funnel in this operation. The water should always be poured in first. Now turn the agitator handle e, so that its arms come as nearly as may be between the caps closing the openings on top of the generator. When in that position the revolving valve in the bronze diaphragm, by which the carbonate is fed down into the acid and water, is closed. Pour through the largest bung B, marked marble on its cap, the required quantity of ground marble, working it in with a small rod if necessary. The ground marble should be sifted before it is poured into the generator, as it sometimes contains nails or other hard substances, which are liable to injure it. After the marble is poured in, wipe off the screw-thread carefully, and screw on the safety cap tightly. The generator is now charged and ready for operation. It is advisable when bicarbonate of soda or whiting is used, to mix it with water, so as to form a pasty mass before pouring it into the generator. Dry, ground marble, however, is decidedly the best carbonate. To evolve the gas in the generator, allow a small quantity of carbonate to enter the acid and water, by opening the valve in the bronze diaphragm separating the upper chamber, containing the carbonate, from the lower chamber containing the acid and water. This is done by slowly turning the handle e two or three times. Then bring the handles to rest between the openings on top of the generator. In a short time let down more of the carbonate in the same manner. When the required pressure is obtained, close the valve in the diaphragm by bringing the handles e to rest in a position between the openings on top of the generator".
Fig. 157. - Absolute Pressure Governor.
Fig. 158 is a cross-section of a complete stationary fountain, with its gas-washer and all connections and the corrugated agitator. Fig. 159 is a sectional elevation of the same. The heavy black lines represent the block tin lining or covering.
A, fountain body; B, frame on which fountains rest; C, generator filled with chips of marble; D D, ends of the corrugated agitator; E, stuffing-box; F, back-bearing of agitator; G, corrugated beaters of the agitator; H, inlet pipe for gas from the generator; I, pipe connecting the gas washer to the upper part of the acid chamber in the generator for equalizing the pressure above and below the valve in the latter; K, pressure-gauge; L, tube in gas-washer for the passage of the gas from the generator; M1, pipe for conveying the gas from the gas-washer to the bottom of the fountain; M2, pipe for drawing off the carbonated beverage; 0, handle of agitator; P1, valve for controlling the supply of gas to the fountain; P2, valve for controlling the supply of the carbonated beverage; K, bung through which the fountain is charged with the beverage to be carbonated; S, valve for the discharge of waste water in cleansing the fountain; V, diaphragm for holding the marble chips in the gas-washer; Y, valve for the discharge of water from the gas-washer.