A Useful End for Empty Match-boxes - Some Ingenious Toys - The Locomotive - A Doll's Bedstead - A Chest of Drawers - An Aeroplane which Works - A Cart - A Great Wheel he materials necessary to construct the T models described in this article are empty match-boxes of the ordinary small size, about 2 1/4 inches by 1 1/2, a few matches, a tube of adhesive, some of the small wooden button moulds used for covering with material, and a small piece of stiff cardboard.
A Match-box Engine
An engine is a good toy for a beginner to attempt. This requires one whole matchbox and the inside half of another. Take out the inside half and cut off one end, with about a quarter of an inch of the sides and base remaining on it. Gum the inside edges of the box, and slip the end in until it is level with the outer cover; this makes the front of the boiler.
Now take the second inside half of the match-box to construct the tender. Leave the bottom intact, but cut all the sides away excepting five-eighths of an inch at one end of the sides and one end. Gum the under side of the long flat piece, and place on to the inside of the box which formed the boiler.
Next, cut away sufficient of the top part of the upper box at the back to allow of a piece of the inside box, nearly one and a half inches long, to be placed in it to form the "cab" of the engine.
The axles for the wheels are made of matches, rounded by glasspaper.
The two pairs of small front wheels should have their axles gummed on to another match, the exact width of the box, which is then gummed on to the bottom of the box.
The third pair of wheels, being larger, do not require this extra piece of wood.
The last pair, though large wheels are also used for them, require a piece of wood, hardly half the thickness of a match, gummed on to the box first of all.
Slip some small button moulds on to the two pairs of front wheels, and a larger size on to the back pairs. Cut some narrow strips off a match-box, long enough to reach from one set of wheels to the next set. Gum firmly to the point of the axle and leave to dry. For the funnel, a hole must first be made in the centre of the box, about half an inch from the front edge; then make a roll of paper, and slip it into the aperture. About one and a quarter inches from the funnel make a smaller hole, slip a litle roll of paper into it, and gum a small round of paper on the top, and the engine is finished.
A Doll's Bedstead
A doll's bedstead only requires the inside portion of a match-box.
Cut carefully downwards at the corners nearly to the bottom, then along both sides, leaving about one-eighth of an inch at the base. This makes the framework very strong; without it the ends would fall away from the base. Gum four little legs, each half an inch long, made from a match, under each corner; then paint all over with white enamel, and you have a dainty little bed for a small doll.
Another article for the dolls' house that can be made with these materials is a chest of drawers.
To construct this, four boxes will be required. Trim them neatly, cut or scrape off the glasspaper at the sides, and any paper on the top and bottom that will come off, but on no account wet the boxes, as when they dry they generally twist out of shape.
Now gum the side of one of these boxes, and press it firmly against one side of another one. Gum their upper surface, and place the remaining two boxes on the top of them. Fasten a piece of string or tape round them to keep them tightly together while the gum is setting, and put on one side to dry.
Meanwhile, make the handles of the drawers by piercing a small hole in the middle of one end of each of the inside parts of the boxes. Place a paper-fastener into each hole, and press out the back of it. Four holes must now be made in the base of the four boxes joined together, and a boot button to form the legs lightly pressed into each one, the edges being gummed previously to make them remain in.
If the boxes are now firmly set, remove the strings, slip the drawers in and give the whole of the outside a thin coating of white paint. When this is thoroughly dry, finish with a smooth coating of white enamel.
A Model Aeroplane
An aeroplane is a novel toy to make. This requires the outside of an ordinary sized match-box, and the outside of a "waistcoat pocket"-sized match-box; four matches, an elastic band, and a bead a quarter of an inch long, with a large hole in it.
Cut away one side of the larger box, leaving about a quarter of an inch at either end; on the opposite side leave a piece half an inch wide in the centre, besides the two ends. Make a small hole in the middle of this piece. The smaller match-box has its sides cut in a similar fashion.
Prepare four matches by rubbing them with glasspaper till they are smooth; then gum them to the boxes on the most open sides. On the bigger box they are three-quarters of an inch from either end, and on the smaller one five-eighths of an inch from the end.
The propeller is made out of stiff note-paper, and should be cut in the same shape as that shown in the illustration, which measured five inches in length, and one and a quarter inches at its widest point. Cut a piece one inch long off a match, and gum on to the propeller in the centre to strengthen it.
When all the parts are firm, slip the elastic band over the middle of the propeller, thread it through the bead, then the hole in the large match-box; pass it through both match-boxes, and then through the hole in the little box. Next slip a small piece of wood through this loop, and the aeroplane is ready to fly.
To make it work hold the model in the left hand, gently turn the propeller round with the right, until the elastic is well twisted, then let go.
A little cart is a toy made of two matchboxes. One will form the cart, while the second is required for the four little bits at the sides, which takes the axles of the wheels.
The "Great Wheel"
The last model to describe is a miniature "Great Wheel," which revolves when the large knob is turned.
The framework of this toy is cut out of cardboard. The base is made of the same material, and measures four inches square. The height of the supports to the hole in the top, for the centre bar to go through, is exactly three inches, and the outside measurement of the bottom of these supports is also three inches.
Place the supports in an upright position on the base, and mark exactly where they stand; then cut pieces out of the base, only just large enough to allow the ends to slip into them. Gum them and leave to dry.
The diameter of the circle which is to hold the cars is three and three-quarters of an inch. Care should be taken that a spoke comes under the hole from which a car is to hang, to relieve the strain upon it. The distance the cars are apart, from hole to hole, is two inches in a straight line.
The next parts to make are the small bars; these are cut from a piece of wood, two inches in length, as thick as a match.
Then loops must be cut out of a match-box, and gummed on to the cars for them to swing by. These loops measure three-quarters of an inch in height by half an inch in width - half an inch showing above the edge of the car - when gummed in position. The hole in each loop should be cut out with the point of a penknife.
Now make the axle for the centre of the wheel from a piece of wood three and three-quarters of an inch long. To place it in position, pass one end through a support, then through a button mould, with the round side nearest to the support, next through one of the circles of the wheel, through two little pieces of cardboard (cut round with a small hole in the centre), then through the second wheel, a button mould, and the second support. Finally, gum a button mould on each end. Push the small pieces of cardboard, one against either side of the wheels.
When the little cars are ready, pass one of the prepared pieces of wood through the holes in the small loops on the car; then place it between the two wheels, and press the ends into a hole on either side. Place some gum on to each end before pressing them into the cardboard.
Do the same with the remaining four cars, and the toy is completed.
When carrying out these ideas for toys be careful to remove the heads of the matches.
Girls' Christian Names x
Xanthippe (Greek) - "A yellow horse." From two words Xanthus (golden or yellow) and Hippo (a horse). The most famous bearer of this title was the wife of Socrates, as famous for her ill-temper and disagreeable tongue as her husband was for his wisdom and patience. Her name suggests that she possessed luxuriant golden hair as thick as a horse's mane, while it has been aptly remarked that she was well named after a horse, only instead of a yellow it should have been a grey mare!
Xenia (Greek) - "Hospitality." Principally used in Russia, and also spelt Xena and Kseenia.
Yolande (Latin) - "Violet." Provencal form.
Yolette - Pretty French variant.
Ysabel - Spanish form of the Hebrew "Elizabeth" - "God's oath."
Yseulte (Celtic) - "Fair." French form.
Ysonde - Another French form.
Ysolte - English version. See Isolta and Isolt for story.
Zara (Arabic) - "A princess." [Germany.
Zedena (Latin) - "Maid of Sidon." Used in
Zena (Greek) - "Divinely given" or "Heaven-born." This name, so popular in Russia, is derived from Zeus, the all-powerful god of Grecian mythology. Zenos was the genitive case, whence the name is derived.
Zenobia (Aramaic) - "Father's ornament" is the usual signification given to this name, which in its true Arab form is Zeenab. Zenobia was a brilliant and courageous Queen of Palmyra, who virtually made herself Empress of the East. When she and her husband, Odenatus, made their compact with Rome, she received the name of Zenobia, as well as that of Septima, as a mark of Roman citizenship. But the real meaning of Zenobia is "Life from Zeus."
Zenobie - Popular as a modern French name.
Ziliola - Diminutive of above. This is a difficult name to explain. It started life as Ccelina (from Ccelum - heaven). The Italians retained the forms Celio and Celia, which the Venetians converted into Zilia and Ziliola, and the Neapolitans into Liliola, which is the real origin of Lilian and Lilias, erroneously derived from the flower lily.
Zoe (Greek) - "Life."
Zofia - Polish form of Greek "Sophia" - "wisdom."
Zora (Slavonic) - "Dawn."
The Royal Box during a gala performance at the Opera House, Covent Garden. The gorgeous decorations and the magnificent dresses and jewels worn by the guests make such a performance one of the most brilliant spectacles of modern times
From a drawing by J. Matania