This section is from the book "The American Woman's Cook Book", by Ruth Berolzheimer. Also available from Amazon: The Domestic Arts Edition of the American Woman's Cook Book.
Fresh cream does not whip well even when it contains more than 20 per cent butter fat. This is because lactic acid is produced as cream ages, and the acid thickens the cream. The addition of one-half teaspoon commercial lactic acid to each pint of cream will do the same thing that is accomplished by twelve to twenty-four hours standing.
Warm cream will not whip well because warmth thins cream. As cream is chilled, the fat congeals and the cream thickens. Cream set on the ice for two hours will whip easily, if it is rich enough and old enough. The best temperature for whipping cream is between 3 5° and 50° Fahrenheit. Cream is doubled in bulk after whipping.
Milk, bowl and beater should be thoroughly chilled to about 40 ° F. If the milk fails to whip, it is not cold enough. Scalding the milk prior to chilling causes it to whip a little more readily and somewhat stiffer, but scalding is not absolutely necessary. To scald the milk, cover the unopened cans with cold water. Bring water to a boil and continue boiling for five minutes.
Lemon juice can be added for even greater and "permanent" stiffness, when the lemon flavor is suitable to the food with which the whipped milk is to be combined. When lemon juice is used, first whip the milk until stiff. Then add two tablespoons of lemon juice for every cup of milk. Continue whipping long enough to blend in the lemon juice.
Evaporated milk has only about one-fifth of the amount of fat contained in whipping cream. Instead, it has a much greater content of whole milk solids. For that reason it is an ideal ingredient for a dessert which completes an already rich meal.
Thought should be given to the expenditure of the money-allotted to food, as a balanced diet, so necessary to health, depends on the wise apportionment of that allowance. The following rules apply to the average healthy family; they may be modified by each housewife to meet her own special needs.
Spend as much for milk as is necessary to secure for each child three-quarters of a quart to a quart of milk a day and for every one else in the family from one-third to one-half quart of milk a day. If you can not afford whole milk, buy skim milk for the children. Cheese may replace a part of the milk for adults if they prefer it. Two ounces of cheese may be substituted for about one-third of a quart of milk.
It is desirable to include fruit twice a day. Use fresh fruits in the height of their season. When they are cheapest, preserve them for winter use. Dried fruits, such as prunes, apricots, peaches and raisins, can always be bought in the markets and are probably the most inexpensive of all fruits. Oranges are particularly wholesome and should be used as often as possible unless replaced by tomatoes.