Sap Green

This is prepared from the fruit of the buckthorn, and is purgative.

Spinach Green

This is perfectly harmless and will answer most purposes. Wash and drain a sufficient quantity of spinach, pound it well in a mortar, and squeeze the pounded leaves in a coarse cloth to extract all the juice; put it in a pan and set it on a good fire, and stir it occasionally until it curdles, which will be when it is at the boiling point; then take it off and strain off the water with a fine sieve; the residue left is the green; dry it and rub it through a lawn sieve. This is only fit for opaque bodies, such as ices, creams, or syrups.

Another green is made with a mixture of saffron or gamboge, and prepared indigo; the lighter the green the more yellow must be used.

Vermilion and Cinnabar are preparations of mercury, and should never be used; they are of a lively red colour, but carmine will answer most purposes instead.

Bole Ammoniac

There is also the French and German bole. These earths are of a pale red, and possess alexipharmic qualities; they are frequently used in confectionary for painting and gilding.

Umber

This is of a blackish brown colour; it is an earth found near Cologne.

Bistre

This is an excellent light brown colour prepared from wood soot.

These browns are harmless, but sugar may be substituted for them to any shade required by continuing the boiling after it has passed the degree of caramel until it is burnt, when it gives a black-brown, but water may be mixed with it so as to lessen the shades. Dissolved chocolate may also be substituted in some cases for the brown colours.

Black

Blue-black is powdered charcoal, or ivory black, which is obtained from the smoke of burnt ivory; but bone black is generally substituted instead; either of these may be used, but are only required for painting gum paste, when not intended to be eaten.

Obtain any of these colours in fine powder, and mix them with some dissolved gum Arabic, a little water, and a pinch of powdered sugar candy; mix them to the required consistence for painting. For sugars they must be used in a liquid state, and be added before it has attained the proper degree; it may also be used in the same manner for ices, creams, etc, and for icings it can be used either way.

Purple

Mix carmine or cochineal, and a small portion of indigo.

Lilac

The same, making the blue predominate.

Orange

Yellow, with a portion of red.

Gold

The same, but the yellow must be more in excess.

Lemon

Use a solution of saffron.

Green

Blue and yellow.

Orange-Flower Water

The leaves of orange flowers three pounds, water three pints.

Rose Water

As orange flower, using either the damask or pale single rose. Neither the purgative quality of the damask, nor the astringent quality of red roses, rises in distillation, but is contained in the water left in the still.

Cinnamon Wa,Er

Cinnamon one pound, water two gallons. Bruise or break the spice, and infuse it in water for two days. Some consider it sufficient to simmer the spice in the still for half an hour, putting back what comes over, and filtering the whole when cold through a flannel bag or blotting paper.