Take one egg, a pinch of salt, half an egg-shell full of water. Stir in all the flour it will take; roll as thin as you possibly can; hang over a chair-back on a napkin to dry. Then roll up like jelly-cake and slice off as thin as a wafer. They will cook in 15 or 20 minutes.


Caramel for coloring soups is made by putting a tablespoon of sugar and a pinch of salt in a dry saucepan over the fire. Stir constantly till it is slightly burnt. When very dark brown, pour in less than a teaspoon of water. Keep stirring, and gradually add a cup of water. See that the sugar is all dissolved. This gives a rich color, and is better than browned flour.

Browned Flour

Put a pint of flour in a skillet or saucepan over a moderate fire. Stir constantly with a small wooden paddle, if you have one, until it is a dark brown, and do not let it burn. Put it away in a covered vessel and use it for soups, gravies, or sauces. It requires fully half as much more to thicken with, than of unbrowned flour.

How To Color Soups. Amber

As soon as the scum has been taken off, put in grated carrot.


Use caramel or browned flour.


Pound the leaves of spinach, or use the green leaves of celery or parsley. Put this in five minutes before taking up. Okra also gives a green color.


For coloring various dishes green, take a quart of spinach, wash and clean carefully; pound in a mortar to extract the juice. Then put all through a fine sieve. Put the juice in a stewpan or basin. Place this in a vessel of boiling water till it sets. It should not boil. Then put it into a sieve that the water may drain from it, and the clear green will be left for coloring. This may also be dried for future use.


Take the pulp and juice of ripe tomatoes.

For White

Soups use none but white vegetables; for thickening use rice, pearl barley, vermicelli, or macaroni.

Soup Powder

Take an ounce of as many of the following ingredients as can be procured: Thyme, basil, sweet marjoram, summer savory, dried lemon peel, celery seeds, two ounces of dried parsley. Dry, pound, sift, and bottle it tight for use.

Mushrooms can be dried in a warm oven and reduced to a powder with a little mace and pepper, and kept for seasoning soups or gravies.

How To Clarify Soup

Miss Juliet Corson.

Skim off the cold fat that is at the top. Put in the bottom of a saucepan for each quart of soup-stock the white and shell of one egg and one tablespoon of water; mix, and then pour the soup on. Set the saucepan on the fire, and let boil very slowly. As the soup heats, the white will harden, and the egg will rise to the surface together with the blood and cloudiness that remain in the soup. Let boil slowly until the under portion is very clear; then strain through a towel laid in a colander.

Soup Stock, Or Broth

Miss Juliet Corson.

For clear soup leave the vegetables whole, simply peeling them. This gives all the flavor, without the cloudiness arising from the vegetables cut up. Use the neck of beef, one pound of meat or bone for each quart of soup. Have the meat cut from the bone in a solid piece, to serve afterward; crack the bone and put in the bottom of the soup-kettle, the meat and the bone, then add cold water. Place over the fire to heat gradually; as it boils, the blood and albumen will rise. For clear soup, this must be skimmed off. It is never necessary to wash meat if it comes from a clean market; it detracts from its flavor and nutriment. Add a carrot, turnip, and an onion for 3 or 4 quarts. Stick six or eight cloves in the onion; salt and pepper lightly; add a bouquet or fagot of herbs; a small bunch of parsley (two tablespoons), take the roots if you wish the green for a garnish; the green stalk of celery is nice to add. A sprig of any kind of dried sweet herb, except sage, and one bay leaf. A single leek may be used instead of the onion. If wished for the gelatinous property, a knuckle of veal may be added to the soup stock. Cook slowly two hours after adding the vegetables; that time will secure the flavor. If cooked longer, it will assume a jellied consistency. Strain through a sieve, or through a folded towel laid in a colander into an earthen vessel, not in metal. When cold, remove the fat that rises. This soup is perfectly clear.

N.B. - If it is desired to have it very light-colored, use veal instead of beef. A calf's foot, the skin from the head, or an old fowl may be used with good results in this stock.

If very rich soup is wished for, use only a pint of water to each pound of meat. The flesh of old animals contains more osmazome than that of the young. It is this property that gives flavor and perfume to the stock. Brown meat contains more than white, and the brown is more fragrant. The osmazome reaches its height by roasting. So that the remnants of roasts give a good flavor to stock. - AUTHOR.