Batter breads baked in irons.

Have materials and utensils cold, put liquid with salt, oil and yolks of eggs when used, in stone milk crock or deep pan, agitate for a moment by moving wire batter whip briskly back and forth, when the liquid will be full of bubbles. Sprinkle flour in, not too slowly, with the left hand, keeping up the agitating motion. When the batter is quite stiff, beat it (never stir it as that drives out the air) just enough to incorporate all the flour. Give a few turns of the egg beater to the whites of eggs (which are in a bowl with a little salt), so that they are full of large bubbles, rinse off the beater with cold water, give it a shake and hang it in its place. Turn the eggs on to the batter and mix them in lightly, beating a little if necessary to mix well; cover the dish and set it in the ice box (or in a pan of cold water with a wet cloth over it) in summer, or in a cold room where it will not freeze in winter, for not less than 20 m. and longer if possible. (I always stir my gems up over night when making them for breakfast. )

Slightly warm the pans and oil them.

When ready to bake the gems, warm the irons a little and without stirring the batter dip it into the cups, filling them to the brim, set into a slow oven that bakes well from the bottom.

Bake until well risen, increase the heat sufficiently to brown the gems nicely, then lower the temperature and finish baking. Be sure that the gems are well baked to the center. Turn out of pans at once and let stand for 10 or 15 m. before serving. There is no objection to serving unleavened breads warm.

If the oven does not bake well at the bottom, leave the pans on top of the stove where it is not too hot, for 10 - 15 m., then place carefully in the oven.

When baking with gas, put the gems on the top grate of the oven before it is lighted; use one burner only at first and have that turned rather low.

Whole Wheat and Graham Gems

1 1/3-1 1/2 cup of milk, 1 egg and flour for drop batter.

Graham gems should not be quite as stiff as whole wheat. Use the quantity of milk that will just fill the pan; skimmed milk with 1 1/2-2 tablespns. of oil to the quart equals whole milk. Brazil or other nut butter or meal, with water, is sometimes used.

All whole wheat or graham flour may be used, but combining either with 1/2-2/3 white flour makes gems more digestible.

The batter may be made thinner than a drop batter, but I have better gems when it is quite stiff. I take only 3 eggs to a quart of milk, but more may be used. When we are so happy as to get a spring wheat graham flour, 2 eggs to the quart of liquid is sufficient.

Gems may be made without eggs with all whole wheat, or graham flour of spring wheat. They require a little more beating, the longer rest is imperative, and the oven should be a little warmer at first.

Cold boiled rice may be added to thin gem batter sometimes, also grated cocoanut.

White, and Sally Lunn Gems

Make the same as whole wheat gems, using white bread flour, and 1 egg to each cup of milk, add 2 tablespns. of sugar for Sally Lunns.

Fruit and Nut Gems

Add a few English currants, seeded raisins in quarters, with or without fine cut dates, or dried or fresh blueberries to any gem batter. Use chopped nuts alone or with fruit. Ground citron goes nicely with nuts.

Rye Gems

1 pt. skimmed milk 1 tablespn. oil 1/2 teaspn. salt

1 egg

3 cups rye meal or 3 1/2-4 cups rye flour with or without a few caraway seeds No oil is required with whole milk. Plain rye or corn gems may be served with maple syrup.

Rye and Wheat Gems

1 cup skimmed milk salt

1 tablespn. oil 1/2- 7/8 cup rye meal

1 egg 7/8 cup white bread flour

Crumb Gems

1 qt. skimmed milk 3 small eggs or 2 large ones

2 tablespns. oil graham flour for thin batter salt 1 cup fine zwieback crumbs

Or,. 1 1/2 cup crumbs, 1/2 cup white flour, 2 eggs, 1 teaspn. sugar, with the milk, salt and oil.

Corn Meal and White Flour Gems

1/2 cup granular corn meal 1/2 teaspn. salt

3/4 cup boiling water 2 teaspns. oil

1/2 cup cold water 1 egg

1 1/4 cup white bread flour

Scald meal with boiling water, add oil, salt, cold water and yolk of egg; beat, add white flour, beating, and lastly stiffly-beaten white of egg; rest. Bake in moderate oven.

Corn and Graham Gems-no eggs

3 cups milk 3 1/3 cups white corn meal 2 teaspns. oil 1 2/3 cup graham flour salt

Cream Corn Gems or Griddle Cakes

Stir enough corn meal into not too thick cream to make a stiff batter; about 1 1/2 cup meal to 1 of cream; add salt, beat a little, rest, bake in gem irons or on griddle.