"The more liquid there is taken into the stomach with the meals, the more difficult it is for the food to digest, for the liquid must first be absorbed.'

Consequently, the most perfect hygiene in the use of soups, would call for a few sips only, at the beginning of the meal, which in some cases stimulates the flow of the digestive juices.

With a hearty dinner of other foods, a small portion of some light soup or broth should be served, while a legume soup a chowder or a puree may make the principal dish of the meal.

We seldom make a soup after a recipe. When we serve soups every day, we purposely cook more than is required for other dishes of such things as will make good ingredients for soups; or, if used occasionally only, we make soup at a time when there are left-overs that are suitable. We get better results from these combinations, both from the variety of flavors, and because, with few exceptions, reheating develops richer flavors in foods.

"Our Famous Soups" are some that we have made, at different times, after this plan.

Under the head of soups are classed, bouillons or consommes, bisques, purees and chowders; though some of them are not soups in the strictest sense. For instance, a chowder is often made of the consistency of a stew, with a small proportion of liquid, and, as Francatelli says, "a puree is a kind of pulpy maceration of legumes, vegetables, etc., which have been passed through a fine colander,' but both of these are sometimes made with a larger proportion of liquid and served as thick soups.

The word "bisque" means rich soup, so in using it we do not say "tomato bisque soup" because the word soup is comprehended in bisque.

Bouillons {boo-yoń or bool-yoń} or consommes are broths.

Some Suggestions

Do not put everything through the colander, (celery and oyster plant, never). Mastication in connection with soups is an aid to their digestion as well as being more satisfying.

Use potatoes seldom in any but potato soups; potato water, not at all. The addition of potatoes to an otherwise wholesome soup might convert it into a fermentable combination: as well as to remove it from the dietarv of those who cannot use starchy foods.

Cook turnips and carrots by themselves and drain before adding to soups. The flavor of turnip in soup is often disagreeable.

Utilize the food cutter in preparing vegetables for soups.

As a rule, use oyster plant in slices, 1/4 in. thick in the largest part and a little thicker toward the end; but if desired fine, grind it before cooking. In this way it retains its characteristic flavor.

Often the best way to thicken a soup is to heat the flour in oil or butter (without browning) and add some of the hot soup to it as for gravy, so avoiding a scorched taste.

Dried mushrooms washed well, soaked 2 to 4 hours, simmered 5 m., cut fine and added, with their juice, give a fine flavor to many soups. Three or four small pieces are sufficient for 1 1/2 to 2 qts. of soup.

Always keep a quantity of consomme or bouillon on hand, for soups or sauces, or to pour over hash, or chopped potatoes, or to moisten roasts.

Serve bouillon or consomme in cups with or without the beaten white of egg in teaspoonfuls on each.

Whipped cream may be added to bouillon just before serving or dropped by teaspoonfuls on the cups, with a leaf of parsley laid on each.

When soups are lacking in character, the addition of water and salt will develop a meaty flavor, relieving the "porridgy" taste.

Raw nut butter may be added to any of the combinations of vegetables in the proportion of 1 or 1 1/2 tablespns. to each quart of soup.

The water drained from boiled peanuts may be used in place of raw nut butter, taking care not to use too much.

If you should have the thick nut stock, use not more than 2 tablespns. to each quart of soup.

Use herbs sparingly, some, such as mint and thyme, in minute quantities.

In putting corn through a colander, first crush the kernels in a pan or grind them through a food cutter, and put a very little into the colander at a time.

Use poor or top parts of stalks of celery, crushed, for flavoring soups.

Okra is a valuable addition to some soups, tomato soups especially. When using it, take about 1/4 less water for the soup, and add from 1/4 - 1/2 of a pint can to each pint of soup. Heat carefully and serve at once.

The water from spinach is an invaluable addition to vegetable soups, and with the addition of a little cream it alone makes a delightful broth. The water from nearly all greens is desirable in soups.

A little stewed asparagus adds very much to any vegetable soup or chowder.

If soup has thickened by standing, add water or milk before serving.