Ah examining trip among acres of vineyards in association with scores of grape-growers, and the frequent question of "What is this variety?" put by many a vine-grower, caused us to think somewhat of the requisites of distinctive markings and detection or knowledge of varieties by means of their foliage. With the older and generally cultivated sorts, as Isabella and Clinton, the leaf has become so well known that few have to see the fruit before deciding on the variety; but with those of more recent introduction, although many of them are largely grown and widely distributed, yet knowledge of them seems known only to comparatively few, except by means of the fruit. Referring to the books, we find in description of varieties that while the size of bunch, form and color of berry, etc., are depicted, it is rare to find the foliage even mentioned, and the vine itself more than remarked upon as hardy or tender. As foliage is a very important item in the making up of a good grapevine to meet the great extremes of our climate, and as a knowledge of it in connection with varieties would often serve to assist in deciding upon the identity of a sort, even without the fruit, we suggest that more care and attention be paid thereto by describers of new sorts, as well as the makers of books.

Leaf of the Adirondaa.

Fig. 90. - Leaf of the Adirondaa.

To assist in the work, we have carefully gone over a number of varieties, made some outlines of leaves, and description of the color of leaf and leaf-stalk as they appear to us. We may not be strictly correct, but as we propose this as initiatory for further knowledge by others, we are perhaps near enough the truth. We shall be pleased to receive from any and all grape-growers and horticulturists ideas and corrections, and trust we may end in being enabled to see a written description of any variety so that it can as readily be detected in foliage as in the fruit.

Our drawings have been made from mature leaves, and exhibit the general form of the variety. Commencing with Adirondac, we find the first growth or young terminal leaves a pale yellow green, and changing very soon to a dark sea green, and greenish white woolly beneath. Leaf - stalks dull reddish, a little moldy.

Next, the Catawba has leaves at first of a light pale green, changing at maturity to a rich yellowish grass green, and underneath yellowish woolly. The leafstalk greenish, a little with red next the leaf or when fully exposed to the sun.

The Concord

The Concord has leaves at first of a bright grass green, becoming a very dark sea green at maturity, and yellowish woolly white underneath. Leaf-stalk dull green.

The Delaware

The Delaware at first is of a light yellow pea green, and at maturity a dark yellowish green, yellow green beneath. Leafstalk green, becoming bronzed at maturity.

Diana Hamburgh

Diana Hamburgh has foliage at first light yellow green, changing to a dark grass green at maturity, light pea green beneath. Leaf-stalk green, tinged on the upper side with a brownish red.


Elsinborough has foliage of a dark rich pea green, with green leaf-stalks, until they are very mature, when they become bronzed.

The Hine

The Hine has leaves of a. light yellow green at first, changing to a rich dark grass, almost sea green, at maturity, the underside slightly shaded with the white woolly character of its - labrusca - class. The leaf-stalks are green, becoming bronzed at maturity.

Hartford Prolific

Hartford Prolific has leaves a light sea green at first, and changing a sea green when mature; greenish white underneath. Leaf - stalk a bright red.

The Leaf Of Iona

The Leaf Of Iona at first is a light pale yellow green, becoming a light sea green at maturity, woolly white beneath. Leafstalk pale red or pink.


Israella has a leaf of a light yellow green at first, but soon changing to a dark rich sea green; the underside greenish, slightly downy or woolly, of a yellowish white shade. Leaf-stalk dull reddish green, with a slight mold or bloom.

Leaf of the Concord.

Fig. 92. - Leaf of the Concord.

The Foliage Of Ives' Seedling

The Foliage Of Ives' Seedling is at first light green, but soon changes to a deep rich dark green, while the ribs continue prominent of a light green color. The underside is woolly and yellowish. The leaf-stalk is moldy, of a reddish brown midway, but green at each end.

Laura Beverly

Laura Beverly, a new Canadian candidate for favor, has foliage of a light yellow grass green at first, becoming, when mature, a dark rich sea green, light green beneath, with a slight yellow muddy tinge. Leaf-stalks reddish.


Maxatawney is at first light yellow green, becoming very dark rich sea green; dull greenish yellow white underneath. Leaf-stalk red.


Miles has foliage light pea green at first, becoming dark yellowish green, quite white underneath. Leaf - stalks at first downy green, becoming bronzed or a dark dull red.


Mottled is at first a clear dark pea green, becoming at maturity quite dark, and very old leaves changing to a yellowish tint; underside white woolly. Leafstalks bronzed.

The Sherman

The Sherman has foliage a light yellow dark green, and green underneath. The leaf - stalks dull reddish and a little hairy.


Telegraph is at first a pea green, becoming a dark sea green, with rough whitish mold or woolly beneath. Leaf - stalk, green.

Leaf of the Iona.

Fig. 93. - Leaf of the Iona.

How To Kalon

To Kalon is a yellow green, and retains its yellow tinge at maturity; underneath slightly woolly. Leaf-stalk green.

The Weekawken Leaves

The Weekawken Leaves are at first a light yellow green, and pea green at maturity, smooth beneath. Leaf - stalk reddish brown.

We have many more notes and drawings of foliage ; but, as we have said, our object is to draw attention toward some method of more surely detecting varieties by means of foliage, and the present is sufficient, we hope, for the purpose. If the grape-growing societies would take up this matter and appoint committees toward its completion, and have these committees confer with one another, and then submit the joint conclusion to the American Pomo-logical Society for a final report and record, we should count them as doing a work of great value to the grape interests and horticulture at large.

Leaf of Ives Seedling.

Fig. 94. - Leaf of Ives Seedling.