books



no previous pagepage up: Disease Books
  
next page: A Manual Of Pathological Anatomy | by Carl Rokitansky, William Edward Swaine

Diseases Of The Intestines | by Max Einhorn



A text-book for practitioners and students of medicine

TitleDiseases Of The Intestines
AuthorMax Einhorn
PublisherWilliam Wood And Company
Year1900
Copyright1900, William Wood And Company
AmazonDiseases Of The Intestines A Text-Book For Practitioners And Students Of Medicine

By Max Einhorn, M.D. Professor Of Medicine At The New York Post-Graduate Medical School And Hospital, And Visiting Physician At The German Dispensary, New York

To My Esteemed Friend And Teacher Ernst Von Leyden, M.D. Professor Of Medicine Is The University Of Berlin This Book Is Respectfully Dedicated

Medical Practitioners LibraryDiseases Of The Intestines
-Preface
This treatise is a continuation of my work on Diseases of the Stomach, the two together comprising the principal disorders of the digestive tract. In discussing the subject of the intestinal affecti...
-Anatomy. The Intestinal Canal (Intestinum)
The intestinal canal may be divided into two parts, the small intestine and the large intestine (Fig. 1). The small intestine (intestinum tenue) is about seven to eight metres long, the first portion ...
-The Duodenum
The duodenum, so called on account of its length (being about twelve inches long), is, unlike the other parts of the small intestine, very definite in position and extent. It is that part which is not...
-The Small Intestine
The small intestine which forms the continuation of the duodenum is composed of the jejunum and ileum. There is really no marked structural difference between the two, and it is therefore hardly possi...
-Structure Of The Small Intestine
The small intestine is composed of four principal coats: the serous, muscular, submucous, and mucous (Fig. 2). The serous coat is formed by the visceral layer of the peritoneum. The muscular coat cons...
-The Large Intestine Or Large Bowel (Intestinum Crassum)
The large intestine extends from the termination of the ileum to the anus. It is about five to six feet in length. Its calibre decreases from beginning to end except at the ampulla of the rectum where...
-Physiology. 1. The Secretory Function Or The Chemical Processes In The Intestines
The intestines are entrusted with the important office of digesting the food which has not been acted upon by the stomach, of absorbing it, and finally of eliminating the undigested remnants. In order...
-2. The Absorption Function In The Intestines
The object of digestion is to dissolve and partially change the food substances into such combinations as can be assimilated by the blood. Before assimilation can be effected absorption must take plac...
-3. The Motion Function In The Intestines
The motor function or peristalsis of the intestine has for its objects the thorough mixture of the contents and their propulsion through the entire canal until their final exit through the anus. Nothn...
-Chapter II. Methods Of Examination And Treatment. Examination. Interrogation
The examination begins with a thorough interrogation of the patient. Before starting with the narration of the present ailment a general outline of previous sicknesses is of value. Diseases which invo...
-Inspection
Inspection of the abdomen is best made in good daylight with the patient in the recumbent posture, but should also be completed by inspection in the standing position. The condition of the skin of the...
-Inspection. Proctoscopy
In order to inspect the anus internally and also the rectum it is necessary to introduce a speculum. This method of inspecting the rectum is called proctoscopy. Of the many specula devised for this pu...
-Palpation
Palpation is the most important procedure available among the methods of examination in abdominal diseases. It is best performed in the recumbent position of the patient, the head being slightly raise...
-Percussion
Percussion is of less importance than palpation. In many instances it serves to confirm the results obtained by the latter. In percussing the intestines it is best to use the fingers. It should be don...
-Auscultation
Auscultation is not of great significance in diseases of the intestine. Palpation of intestinal coils with the application of moderate pressure may elicit either a gurgling noise or a friction sound. ...
-Inflation Of The Intestine With Carbonic Acid Gas Or Air
Inflation of the intestine is one of the most important diagnostic procedures. Von Ziemssen,1 who first introduced this method of examination, injected successively into the bowel two solutions, one ...
-Injection Of Water Per Anum
This is done by means of a rectal tube and a fountain syringe provided with a scale indicating the amount of water used. In case of stricture, especially of the lower portion of the colon, the quantit...
-Lavage Of The Bowel
Lavage of the bowel in a similar manner as performed in the stomach has been recommended by Boas 1 for diagnostic purposes. It is best performed in the lateral posture of the patient after an evacuati...
-Examination Of The Faeces
The examination of the faeces is of much service in diseases of the intestine. The faeces represent the end product of the digestive act, consisting of residue unsuitable for further assimilation. It ...
-Examination Of The Faeces. Part 2
Remnants Of Food In The Foeces Undigested remnants of food, macroscopically visible, occur in the faeces. Normally, however, only small particles of vegetable substances, like potatoes, asparagus, sp...
-Examination Of The Faeces. Part 3
Tests For Mucin According to Hoppe-Seyler, mucin forms one of the principal constituents of the faeces. In order to test for it the faeces are thoroughly mixed with water and an equal volume of milk ...
-Examination Of The Faeces. Part 4
Fat The presence of neutral fat and fatty acids is determined in the following manner: The faeces are treated with a considerable amount of ether; the latter is separated and evaporated in a water ba...
-Examination Of The Faeces. Part 5
Biliary Acids Whenever biliary pigments appear in the dejecta, biliary acids, as a rule, accompany them. The presence of biliary acids is best revealed by Pettenkofer's test, and is made as follows: ...
-Examination Of The Faeces. Part 6
Ferments In order to ascertain the existence of ferments in the faeces a glycerin extract of them may be made or the fecal matter may be directly mixed with water containing a small proportion of thy...
-Examination Of The Faeces. Part 7
Pancreatic Calculi Pancreatic calculi usually have a rough surface, are brittle, and may be faceted. They are soluble in chloroform and produce on evaporation an aromatic odor (Minich1). Bile pigment...
-Microscopical Examination of the Faeces
The microscopical examination of the faeces is occasionally of assistance in establishing the diagnosis. With Ewald 1 I do not think it necessary to examine microscopically the faeces of every patient...
-Microscopical Examination of the Faeces. Part 2
Crystals Besides the crystals of fatty acids and their soaps the following crystals are met with in the faeces: oxalate of lime appears in the well-known envelope form of varying size, especially aft...
-Microscopical Examination of the Faeces. Part 3
Pus Pus corpuscles in the dejecta occur in ulcerative processes of the intestines or whenever an abscess has discharged its contents into the bowel. Besides these two conditions, it is also met with ...
-Treatment. Diet
The principles of diet are fully described in my book on the stomach. Here I will add a few remarks referring to the dietetic treatment of intestinal diseases. As in the case of the stomach, acute int...
-1. Rectal Alimentation
The rectum and the greater part of the large bowel should be emptied if possible before injecting the feeding enema. The latter is best accomplished by using a fountain syringe and a soft-rubber tube ...
-2. Subcutaneous Alimentation
In diseases of the intestine special conditions are met with in which neither the ordinary way of feeding nor rectal alimentation is possible. 1 Leube: Leyden's Handbucb der Ernahrungstherapie, Bd....
-Mechanical Treatment Procedures
Injections Injections into the bowel in the form of clysters were used for curative purposes even in old times. The regular syringe with its stiff end may, if forcibly inserted, give rise to damage o...
-Mechanical Treatment Procedures. Continued
Massage And Gymnastic Exercises Massage is frequently employed in functional diseases of the intestine. Its field of usefulness lies principally in neurotic and atonic conditions. Massage should be a...
-Chapter III. Acute And Chronic Intestinal Catarrh. Acute Intestinal Catarrh
Synonyms Enteritis acuta; Catarrhus intestinalis acu-tus; Acute diarrhoea; Cholera nostras. Definition An inflammatory affection of the intestines characterized by a sudden development of pains and...
-Acute And Chronic Intestinal Catarrh. Acute Intestinal Catarrh. Part 2
General Subjective Symptoms Aside from the diarrhoeal movements and the unpleasant sensations consisting in a feeling of pressure and fulness in the abdomen mentioned above, there may in light cases ...
-Acute And Chronic Intestinal Catarrh. Acute Intestinal Catarrh. Part 3
Objective Symptoms The physical examination of the abdomen occasionally reveals on inspection a bloated condition and some spots tender to pressure. As a rule, the lower part of the abdomen, particul...
-Acute And Chronic Intestinal Catarrh. Acute Intestinal Catarrh. Part 4
Duration The duration of acute enteritis varies considerably. Mild cases improve in about two to five days, while those of a severer type may last about two weeks. After recovery from acute enteritis...
-Chronic Intestinal Catarrh
Synonyms Enteritis chronica; Chronic catarrh of the bowels. Definition An affection characterized by a chronic inflammation of the intestinal mucosa, giving rise to various disturbances in the func...
-Chronic Intestinal Catarrh. Continued
Hydrotherpeutic Measures In cases of diarrhoea warm mineral baths or baths with the addition of pine needle extract and mud and bran baths are favorable. Cold baths should be avoided. A cold sponge b...
-Chapter IV. Dysentery
Synonyms Enteritis crouposa et necrotica; Amoebic dysentery. Definition An infectious disease characterized by specific ulcerations of the large intestine, giving rise to frequent bloody, mucous, o...
-Symptoms Of Acute Dysentery
The disease may begin suddenly without any premonitory symptoms, or after a few days of general malaise, loss of appetite, and irregularity of the bowels, the patient is attacked with abdominal colic ...
-Symptoms Of Chronic Dysentery
Chronic dysentery develops either after several attacks of the acute form or directly from the first acute attack, which after some periods of improvement persists to a greater or less extent. Cases o...
-Diagnosis, Prognosis and Treatment Of Acute Dysentery
Diagnosis The diagnosis of acute dysentery is usually very easy. The symptoms above described, being ordinarily present, cannot fail to indicate the disease. The most reliable evidence is afforded by...
-Chapter V. Ulcers Of The Intestines. 1. Duodenal Ulcer
Synonyms Round duodenal ulcer; Ulcus duodeni pep-ticum (Leube). Definition A defect in the mucous membrane of the duodenum. Etiology The etiology of duodenal ulcer corresponds with that of gastri...
-Duodenal Ulcer. Continued
Situation Of The Ulcer Ordinarily the ulcer is found in the ascending or the upper horizontal part of the duodenum, much more rarely in the descending part, and only exceptionally in the lower horizo...
-2. Embolic And Thrombotic Ulcers
This group of ulcers resembles the duodenal ulcer in that disturbances of the circulation are the exciting causes. These ulcers are of very rare occurrence. Embolic ulcers were first described by Pare...
-3. Amyloid Ulcers
Amyloid processes within the intestine were first described by Virchow 1 in 1855. The amyloid changes start in the walls of the small blood-vessels (capillaries and the finest arteries, occasionally a...
-4. Tuberculous Ulcers
Tuberculosis of the intestines is of very frequent occurrence. While it usually appears in phthisical patients, there are also cases of an undoubted primary intestinal tuberculosis. According to Freri...
-5. Syphilitic Ulcers
Syphilitic ulcers of the intestines are quite rare. In the small intestine they are mostly met with in the new-born. Here the ulcers are found either singly or in great numbers over the entire small i...
-6. Toxic Ulcers
Under the term toxic ulcers of the intestine are understood defects which develop in consequence of abnormal (toxic) products contained in the blood. Thus intestinal ulcers occur in severe forms of ne...
-Chapter VI. Neoplasms Of The Intestine. Malignant Growths. Cancer
Definition An epithelial neoplasm of the intestinal walls. Etiology The etiology of intestinal cancer, like that of cancerous disease of other organs, is still unknown. The traumatic theory (repeat...
-A. General Symptoms of Cancer
The general symptoms of cancer of the bowel are those found in malignant growths of other organs. Of these anaemia and cachexia are the most important. Usually both are present at the same time. Somet...
-B. Symptoms of Cancer Due To The Location Of The Neoplasm
(A) Cancer Of The Duodenum In the duodenum the neoplasm almost always causes gastric symptoms similar in nature to those of cancer of the pylorus. Thus anorexia, pains, vomiting, and dilatation of th...
-B. Symptoms of Cancer Due To The Location Of The Neoplasm. Continued
(D) Cancer Of The Rectum The symptoms met with in cancer of the rectum resemble more or less those of a neoplasm of the upper portion of the large bowel. Here, however, the diagnosis can be made with...
-Cancer Diagnosis, Prognosis and Treatment
Diagnosis The diagnosis of intestinal cancer can be made with certainty in the following instances: 1. If by abdominal or rectal palpation a tumor can be detected which is situated in the small or la...
-Sarcoma And Lympho-Sarcoma
Sarcoma of the intestine is a much rarer affection than cancer. According to Kundrat, 1 in the Wiener Allgemeine Krankenhaus between the years 1882 to 1893 there were 2,125 autopsies on cases of cance...
-Benign Tumors Of The Intestine
Of the benignant neoplasms the following forms are occasionally met with in the intestine: adenoma, fibroma, lipoma, myoma, angioma, and cyst. These growths are termed polypi if they have a pedicle. O...
-Chapter VII. Hemorrhoids
Synonyms Phlebectasia hemorrhoidalis. Piles. Definition Diffuse or circumscribed varicose dilatations of the hemorrhoidal veins situated either in the subcutaneous tissue of the external surface of...
-Hemorrhoids. Part 2. Internal Piles Division
Internal piles are best divided, according to Allingham,1 into the three following varieties: 1. Capillary Piles These present small, florid, raspberry-looking tumors or rather vascular areas up...
-Hemorrhoid Symptomatology
Most of the symptoms produced by hemorrhoids are generally of a local character. They greatly vary in the different varieties of piles. In the early stage of external pile there occur off and on, espe...
-Diagnosis and Prognosis of Hemorrhoids
Diagnosis The diagnosis of hemorrhoids as a rule is easy. External piles are found by inspection of the anus, the patient lying on his side with the thighs drawn up. The buttocks are pushed aside wit...
-Treatment of Hemorrhoids
A rational mode of living is of the greatest importance. Patients with hemorrhoids should have plenty of outdoor exercise, should partake of food with moderation, should avoid all excesses in baccho a...
-Radical Treatment of Hemorrhoids
1. Dilatation Of The Sphincters Ver-neuil 1 was the first to recommend dilatation of the sphincters as a cure for piles. This treatment is based upon the idea that the spasm of the sphincter is there...
-Radical Treatment of Hemorrhoids. Continued
5. Crushing Crushing of piles has been suggested by Pollock and the method further improved by Allingham,1 who devised a very ingenious apparatus for this purpose, namely, the screw-crushing instrum...
-Hemorrhoid Complications. Prolapse Of The Rectum
Prolapse of the rectum is a frequent complication of hemorrhoids, although it may also occur alone. The prolapse may involve either the mucous membrane alone or all the coats of the rectum. In the lat...
-Fissure Of The Anas
Another affection which very frequently occurs in connection with hemorrhoids is anal fissure. The latter consists of an oblong tear of the mucosa of the anus and gives rise to severe pain and spasmod...
-Chapter VIII. Appendicitis
Synonyms Scolecoiditis; Perityphlitis; Paratyphlitis; Appendicular inflammation. Definition Inflammation of the appendix, characterized by localized pains, commonly fever and digestive disturbances...
-1. Catarrhal Appendicitis (Endo-Appendicitis)
Here in the acute form the mucosa of the appendix is swollen and reddened, the submucosa is engorged and filled with round cells. The follicles are distinctly swollen. The appendix appears swollen and...
-2. The Severe Form Of Appendicitis (Appendicitis Ulcerosa Et Gangraenosa, Appendicitis Perforativa)
In this group the bacterial infection is of a much more virulent nature than in the catarrhal form. The inflammation originating in the mucosa of the appendix at once involves all its lay-en, includin...
-Symptoms of Appendicitis. Catarrhal Or Endo-Appendicitis
In describing the symptomatology of appendicitis it will again be best to differentiate the two forms already mentioned above, namely, the catarrhal and the severe form. 1. Catarrhal Or En Do-App...
-2. The Severe Form Of Appendicitis (Appendicitis Suppurativa Or Perforans)
The disease usually begins quite suddenly in the midst of perfect health; rarely it is preceded by slight digestive disturbances. The patient is seized with violent pains in the abdomen. These are fel...
-Diagnosis and Prognosis of Appendicitis
Differential Diagnosis The following conditions may at times be confounded with appendicitis, namely, biliary, renal, and intestinal colic. The following points will serve as a guide in making a corr...
-Treatment of Appendicitis
With reference to prophylaxis the swallowing of fruit pits, of very small bones, and coarse, indigestible matter in the food was formerly strictly forbidden. Nowadays, however, we know that the above-...
-Surgical Treatment of Appendicitis
The question of operation in appendicitis is a very live one nowadays and is being everywhere discussed. The medical profession has not yet come to a unanimous conclusion in regard to it. Surgical tre...
-Chapter IX. Acute and Chronic Intestinal Obstruction
Introductory Remarks By intestinal obstruction is understood a great variety of conditions which, although unlike in character, have yet the common feature of mechanically causing an obstruction to t...
-Acute Intestinal Obstruction
Synonyms Ileus, miserere, passio iliaca. Definition An acute stoppage of the passage of the intestinal contents. This may be caused either by a mechanical occlusion at a certain part of the intesti...
-Volvulus. An Obstruction Of The Bowel By A Twist About Its Mesentery, Or Its Own Axis, Or The Intertwining Of An Intestinal Coil Within Another
By the term volvulus is understood an obstruction of the bowel by a twist about its mesentery, or its own axis, or the intertwining of an intestinal coil within another. Twisting of the bowel occurs m...
-Intussusception or Invagination. The Prolapse Of One Part Of The Intestine Into The Lumen Of An Immediately Adjoining Part
Intussusception or invagination means the prolapse of one part of the intestine into the lumen of an immediately adjoining part. An intussusception shows in a vertical section six layers of intestine,...
-Acute Intestinal Obstruction. Pathological Changes
The lesions which are encountered in acute ileus, no matter what be its origin, are the following: The intestinal coils above the occluded part of the bowels present a quite different appearance from ...
-The Symptoms Of Acute Intestinal Obstruction
The symptoms of acute intestinal obstruction appear either suddenly or after slight disturbances have existed for a few days, as for instance diarrhoea, constipation, feeling of uneasiness. In some in...
-The Symptoms Of Acute Intestinal Obstruction. Continued
3. Constipation Constipation almost always exists and is very obstinate. After injections, very rarely spontaneously, there may be a slight movement of the bowel consisting of the fecal matter lodged...
-Objective Signs of Acute Intestinal Obstruction
Inspection reveals eitner s symmetrical fulness of the abdomen (sometimes barrel shaped) or a protrusion of certain parts. Thus, as mentioned above, the upper part of the abdomen is protruded when the...
-The Course Of An Acute Intestinal Obstruction
The course of an acute obstruction will depend first upon its location, and secondly upon its nature. The higher up in the intestine the obstruction is situated the more rapid as a rule is the course ...
-Diagnosis of Acute Intestinal Obstruction. A. Recognition Of The Intestinal Obstruction
The diagnosis must deal with the following three points: A. Recognition of the intestinal obstruction. B. Its seat. C. Its etiological factor. The recognition of an acute intestinal obstruction is ...
-Diagnosis of Acute Intestinal Obstruction. B. Location Of The Obstruction
The location of the seat of the obstruction is not merely of theoretical value, but of great practical importance, for this decides the question as to where abdominal incision should be made in cases ...
-Diagnosis of Acute Intestinal Obstruction. C. Recognition Of The Different Forms Of Acute Obstruction
If the diagnosis of acute obstruction of the bowels is not always easy, the recognition of the special anatomical lesion underlying it is still more difficult. In many instances an exact anatomical di...
-Medical Treatment of Acute Intestinal Obstruction
Absolute rest is of the greatest importance. The patient should be kept in bed and told to avoid any abrupt motions. He should not be allowed to go to the water-closet, but should use a bedpan. With T...
-Medical Treatment of Acute Intestinal Obstruction. Continued
Lavage Of The Bowel Injections of large amounts of water into the bowel under considerable pressure are also occasionally of benefit, especially in cases of intussusception of the colon or when a for...
-Medical Treatment of Acute Intestinal Obstruction. Puncture
Puncture of the distended bowel has recently been recommended anew by Curschmann,1 von Ziemssen, and others. According to Curschmann, puncture of the intestine is performed in the following way: A lon...
-Surgical Treatment of Acute Intestinal Obstruction
Treves, the greatest authority on intestinal obstruction, says: There is one measure for the treatment of acute intestinal obstruction, and that is by means of laparotomy. The operation should be per...
-Chronic Intestinal Obstruction
Etiology Chronic intestinal obstruction may be caused by the same factors which produce acute ileus if they do not occlude the entire lumen of the bowel but leave part of the canal open. Besides, obs...
-Chronic Intestinal Obstruction Due To Fecal Accumulation
This variety of intestinal obstruction is more common in females than in males and is usually met with in more advanced age and in patients suffering from hysteria and brain troubles. As a rule, the p...
-Chronic Intestinal Obstruction Due To Stricture Of The Rectum
In this condition as a rule there are at first merely symptoms of constipation; later on these become more obstinate, requiring stronger cathartics. The patient now begins to complain of congestion of...
-Course, Prognosis And Diagnosis Of Chronic Intestinal Obstruction
Course And Prognosis The duration of chronic intestinal obstruction depends largely upon the nature of the particular affection and upon the degree of the obstruction. If there are no complications a...
-Treatment Of Chronic Intestinal Obstruction
The treatment comprises the management of the disease during the intervals and during the attacks. During the intervals the following rules are of importance: The diet should exclude all substances wh...
-Chapter X. Nervous Affections Of The Intestines
General Remarks The intestinal tract is rich in ganglionic cells and nerves. The plexus mesentericus Auerbach and the plexus entericus Meissner accompany it through its entire length. The vagus and t...
-Motor Neuroses Of The Intestines. Diarrhoea
Etiology And Symptomatology Diarrhoea, meaning too frequent and usually too watery movements of the bowels, is always due to increased intestinal peristalsis. Diarrhoea may be the result of various m...
-Motor Neuroses Of The Intestines. Diarrhoea. Continued
2. Dyspeptic Diarrhoea Under dyspeptic diarrhoea may be comprised (a) the diarrhoea which appears after certain articles of food; (b) diarrhoea accompanying abnormal conditions of the gastric content...
-Constipation
Synonyms Habitual constipation, atony of the bowel, constipatio, constipatio alvi, obstipatio. Definition By constipation is understood a diminution in the frequency of evacuations of the bowels. ...
-Etiology of Constipation
Habitual constipation may be divided into three groups: 1. Constipation due to retarded intestinal peristalsis (atony of the bowel). 2. Constipation due to a spasmodic contraction of a certain portion...
-Constipation. Part 2
Constipation Depending Upon Diseases Of Other Organs Numerous diseases of the stomach give rise to constipation. Foremost among these are hyperchlorhydria, ulcer and cancer of the stomach, ischochymi...
-Symptoms of Constipation
In many cases constipation does not induce any subjective symptoms whatever. Ordinarily, however, continued constipation gives rise to sensations of slight pressure, fulness and tension in the abdomen...
-Diagnosis and Prognosis of Constipation.
Diagnosis The recognition of constipation is not difficult, except in those cases in which there is a daily evacuation of the bowels but not a complete one, so that fecal matter is more and more accu...
-Treatment of Constipation
Cases of constipation due to dyspeptic conditions must be treated by first ameliorating the gastric disorder. Cases of constipation secondary to diseases of other organs must be managed by first apply...
-Treatment of Constipation. Part 2. 3. Mechanical Measures
The mechanical measures serve to strengthen the bowel and in this way promote a better action, or they directly effect a stronger intestinal peristalsis. The mechanical measures comprise massage, exer...
-Treatment of Constipation. Injections and Purging Medicaments
4. Injections Injections into the bowels of water alone or of water with the addition of soap, vinegar, common table salt, or castor-oil are often used with advantage. The amount of fluid required fo...
-Chapter XI. Motor Neuroses. Paralysis Of The Intestines
Partial paralysis of the intestines may occur and give rise to symptoms resembling a complete occlusion of the intestinal lumen. Paralysis arising in consequence of a mechanical obstacle to the passag...
-Paresis And Paralysis Of The Sphincters Of The Anus
Paralysis of the anal sphincters occurs frequently in consequence of long-lasting affections of the rectum. Sometimes over-exertion of these muscles (tenesmus) ultimately leads to exhaustion. Occasion...
-Peristaltic Restlessness Of The Intestines
Definition Increased peristaltic motions of the intestines in such a way that they become visible through the abdominal walls. Etiology And Symptomatology While in the normal state intestinal peris...
-Meteorism
Meteorism, tympanites, or flatulency signifies a condition in which there is an excessive accumulation of gas in the intestinal tract. If not caused by an organic obstruction in the bowel this condit...
-Sensory Neuroses Of The Intestines
While normally no sensations originate in the intestinal canal which become perceptible even during digestion, in pathological conditions this organ may be the seat of the most painful feelings. The l...
-Enteralgia
Synonyms Intestinal colic. Neuralgia mesenterica. Definition Pains in the intestines. Etiology Enteralgia is present in most organic lesions of the intestines. Enteralgia of purely neurotic origi...
-Hypogastric Neuralgia. (Neuralgia Hypogastrica, Romberg)
Enteralgia limited to the lower portion of the large bowel is termed hypogastric neuralgia. In this condition there exist disagreeable, sometimes painful sensations in the lower region of the abdomen ...
-Hyperoesthesia, Paraesthesia, And Anaesthesia Of The Intestine
While in the normal state no disagreeable sensations are manifested during the act of intestinal digestion and defecation, in some cases of neurasthenia or hysteria we meet with exceptions to this rul...
-Secretory Neuroses Of The Intestines
Although there is no doubt that secretory nerves exist in the intestines - for it has been shown that the entrance of food into the stomach is immediately followed by secretion not only in the small i...
-Membranous Enteritis
Synonyms Mucous Colic; Tubular Diarrhoea; Membranous Diarrhoea. Definition By membranous enteritis is understood an affection in which more or less large pieces of mucus (usually ribbon-like) are p...
-Intestinal Neurasthenia
The various intestinal neuroses have been separately described. In practice combinations of different neuroses frequently occur. Following Rosenheim we designate such cases as intestinal neurasthenia....
-Chapter XII. Intestinal Parasites
General Remarks Most of the animal parasites found in man inhabit the intestinal canal. Leuckart 1 estimates the number of varieties at about fifty. Not all parasites, however, produce morbid conditi...
-I. Protozoa. Amoeba
Besides dysenteric amoebae which have been described above, a similar variety is occasionally encountered giving rise to no symptoms whatever or sometimes to slight attacks of diarrhoea. 1 Leuckart: ...
-II. Vermes. Cestodes (Tape Worms)
General Remarks In describing the disorders caused by tapeworms it is best to include the taenia solium, taenia mediocanellata, and bothriocephalus latus. The symptoms produced by these three differ...
-Taenia Solium
Taenia solium, or the armed tapeworm, when fully developed, is from two to three metres long. Its head is of pinhead size and spherical in shape. It has four cuplike suckers, in the middle of which is...
-Taenia Saginata Or Mediocanellata
This tapeworm is the one most frequently observed in America as well as abroad. The taenia saginata is much longer, thicker, and wider than taenia solium. The head is 2.5 mm. large, has four large suc...
-Bothriocephalus Latus, Taenia Lata Or Pig Head
This tapeworm is the longest. It measures from five to eight metres. The head is elongated, of almond shape, being about 2.5 mm. in length (Fig. 47). It has two lengthy big grooves on its flat surface...
-Bothriocephalus Latus, Taenia Lata Or Pig Head. Continued
(4) Bothriocephalus Cordatus This tapeworm resembles in all particulars the bothriocephalus latus except that it is much shorter and that the head merges into the proglottides directly without an int...
-Trematodes (Fluke Worms). Distoma Hepaticum Or Liver Fluke
The trematodes are solid worms of a tongue or leaf shape. They possess a clinging apparatus in the form of oral and ventral sucking-cups varying in number. Sometimes they are also provided with hook o...
-Ascaris Lumbricoides (Common Spool Or Round Worm)
This worm is one of the most frequently observed parasites in man. The round worm has a light brown or reddish color and a cylindrical shape. The male is 20 cm. and the female 30 cm. long. The posteri...
-Oxyuris Vermicularis, Awltail, Seat Or Pin Worm, Maggot Or Thread Worm
This parasite is white and filiform, 4 to 12 mm. long and 0.2 to 0.6 mm. thick (Fig. 58). The males are much smaller than the females. The oxyuris has three small knoblike lips. The female possesses t...
-Anchylostoma Duodenale. Dochmius Duodenalis Or Stron-Gylus Duodenalis
This important parasite was first described by Dubini 1 in 1838. Bilharz 2 and Griesinger3 recognized this parasite as the cause of the Egyptian chlorosis. Some time afterward the anchylostoma was obs...
-Anguillula Stercoralis
This nematode is 0.8 to 1.2 mm. long, the male shorter than the female (Fig. 63;. The male is indigenous in Cochin China and Italy. In the latter country it often occurs simultaneously with anchylosto...
-Trichocephalus Dispar. Whip-Worm
This parasite is quite common, but comparatively harmless. Its habitat is the caecum and the neighboring section of the intestine. It lives upon blood which it abstracts from the intestinal mucosa. Th...
-Trichina Spiralis
The trichina spiralis was discovered by Paget,3 but its pathological importance was first recognized by Zenker.4 This parasite is observed in two forms, the trichina of the intestine and the trichina ...







TOP
no previous pagepage up: Disease Books
  
next page: A Manual Of Pathological Anatomy | by Carl Rokitansky, William Edward Swaine