Miscarriage may occur at any period during gestation but is more frequent about the third or fourth month. If it occurs after the sixth month, it is called premature labor. Miscarriage coming on at a late period, is often attended with considerable danger, and where a female has miscarried once, there is a great liability of its recurrence.
The causes are numerous, but the most common are, dissipation, such as a free use of stimulating food and drinks, and late hours; a too sedentary mode of life, neglecting to take exercise or fresh air; great physical exertion; purgative drugs; violent and sudden mental excitement; and mechanical injuries, such as a fall or a blow.
The attack is generally preceded by certain symptoms, which if taken in time, may sometimes be controlled, and the miscarriage prevented. The precursory symptoms are usually chilliness followed by fever, and bearing-down pains; pains in the abdomen or loins, and pains resembling labor-pains; discharge of mucus and blood, sometimes followed by emission of a watery fluid.
At the first symptom of an approach of the attack the patient should be placed in a recumbent position, and remain there as quiet as possible until all danger is over. A physician of course should be obtained as speedily as possible.
Arnica should be given when the symptoms arise from a fall or blow or from great physical exertion,
Constant expulsive efforts with profuse discharge of dark liquid blood, followed by debility; and also where miscarriage has occurred before, and in debilitated persons.
Dragging and forcing pains extending to the back and loins, with profuse discharge of bright red blood.
Chamomilla, particularly when occasioned by a fit of passion; also were the pains are periodical, and are followed by a discharge of dark colored or coagulated blood, or blood mixed mith mucus; violent pain in the bowels; coldness and shivering.
Crocus, particularly in protracted cases and where there is a discharge of dark clotted blood brought on by the slightest motion.
In weak and exhausted persons, and where there are spasmodic pains in the uterus, or bearing-down pain with discharge of blood at intervals; giddiness, fainting, coldness of the extremities and prostration.
Spasms but without loss of consciousness; continuous discharge of bright red blood with pressing downward; nausea or vomiting, pain in the abdomen and sometimes faintness.
Particularly in the commencement and where there are violent bearing-down pains; severe pain in the abdomen, loins, end small of the back; flushed face and profuse discharge of blood.
If Ipecac. fails to relieve and where there are pressing bearing down pains; pain in the back passing into the groins, and discharge of dark, thick or clotted blood.
Two drops of the selected remedy, or twelve globules, in a tumbler of water, a tablespoonful, where the attack is urgent, every half hour or hour; or six globules may be taken on the tongue at the same intervals.
For further directions as it regards flooding, see Menorrhagia.