1. Ap'Ium (Carum - Petroselinum) Grave'Olens, Apii Fructus, Celery (Fruit)

Ap'Ium (Carum - Petroselinum) Grave'Olens, Apii Fructus, Celery (Fruit). S. Europe, cultivated. The ripe fruit - 1 Mm. (1/25') long, ovate, flattened, brown, smooth, mericarps 2, 5 ribs, 12 vittae; contains volatile oil, fixed oil; root, fusiform, white, when wild poisonous; under cultivation, harmless; blanched stalks popular as a salad. Used as carminative, stimulant, flavoring (in infusion, juice); bronchitis, intermittents, contusions, swollen glands. Dose, gr. 15-30 (1-2 Gm.); fluidextract (alcohol).

2. Eryn'Gium Aquat'Icum (Yuccoefo'Lium), Button Snakeroot

Eryn'Gium Aquat'Icum (Yuccoefo'Lium), Button Snakeroot. The root, official 1820-1860; United States. Plant .6-1.8 M. (2-6°) high, leaves rigid, pointed, .3-1 M. (1-3°) long, bristly; flowers white; root tuberous, 6-12 Mm. (1/4-1/2) long, branched, cup-shaped scars, central pith, aromatic; taste sweet, acrid, aromatic, resembles parsnip; contains volatile oil. Used as diaphoretic, expectorant, siala-gogue, emetic; dropsy, gravel, jaundice, substitute for senega; in infusion, decoction, tincture. Dose, 3ss-l (2-4 Gm.).

3. Coni'Um Macula'Turn, Hemlock, Poison Hemlock

Coni'Um Macula'Turn, Hemlock, Poison Hemlock. The full-grown but unripe fruit, carefully dried, preserved, and containing .5 p. c.

Fig. 280.   Apium (Carum   Petroselinum) graveolens: pinnate leaf.

Fig. 280. - Apium (Carum - Petroselinum) graveolens: pinnate leaf.

of coniine, official 1820-1910; Europe, Asia, N. Africa; naturalized in N. and S. America, waste places. Large branching herb, 2-2.5 M. 8°) high, stem furrowed, hollow, smooth, green, mottled with port-wine-colored spots; root biennial, fusiform, 15 Mm. (3/5') thick, exuding

Fig. 281.   Conium maculatum.

Fig. 281. - Conium maculatum.

milky juice when cut; flowers white, small umbels; leaves bi-pinnate, 15-30 Cm. (6-12') long, incised, dentate, mucronate, grayish-green on drying. Fruit, cremocarp, ovate, greenish-gray, 2 mericarps usually separated, each 3 Mm. (1/8') long, 1.5 Mm. (1/16') broad, ovate, convex side with 5 pale yellow crenate ribs, no vittae, flat surface with longitudinal groove; odor of mice urine, especially with alkali; taste characteristic, disagreeable, bitter; solvent: alcohol; contains coniine (conine - liquid) .5-1.5 p. c, methylconiine, conhydrine, pseudoconhydrine, volatile oil, fixed oil, coniic acid. Sedative, narcotic, anodyne, soporific, antispasmodic, anaphrodisiac; depresses all motor nerves, beginning in peripheries, thence to spinal cord, etc., causing motor paralysis without loss of sensation; spasmodic chorea, whooping-cough, melancholia, neuralgia, delirium tremens, tetanus, asthma, epilepsy,

Fig. 282.   Conium: fruit and longitudinal section magnified 3 diam.; transverse section magnified 8 diam.

Fig. 282. - Conium: fruit and longitudinal section magnified 3 diam.; transverse section magnified 8 diam.

pneumonia; scrofulous glandular sores, affections of mammary glands, to check milk secretion, etc. Poisoning: Vomiting, fatigue, heaviness of legs, numbness, drooped eyelids, mydriasis, vertigo, impaired speech, slow pulse, paralysis of voluntary muscles, loss of speech, and vision, death from paralysis of respiratory muscles - emetics, lavage, tannin, strychnine, diffusible stimulants, atropine, warmth, epispastics, artificial respiration. Dose, gr. 1-5 (.06-.3 Gm.); extract (diluted alcohol + .3 p. c. of diluted hydrochloric acid), gr. 1/2-2 (.03-.13 Gm.); fluidextract (diluted alcohol + 2 p. c. of acetic acid), ej-5 (.06-.3 Ml. (Cc.)); ointment, tincture.