In the distillation of concrete oleoresin, when the volatile oil ceases

Fig. 16.   A boxed, cornered, and chipped pine tree.

Fig. 16. - A boxed, cornered, and chipped pine tree.

to come over, the resin (rosin) while hot is run off from the bottom of still and strained into barrels, while the condensed distillate (oil), floating above the water, is dipped out and barrelled for market.

Preparations. - I. Oil: 1. Oleum Terebinthinae Rectificatum. Rectified Oil of Turpentine. (Syn., Ol. Tereb. Rect., Rectified Turpentine Oil; Fr. Essence de Terebenthine rectifiee; Ger. Gereinigtes Terpentinol.)

Manufacture: Shake thoroughly oil of turpentine, a convenient quantity, with an equal volume of sodium hydroxide solution, recover about three-fourths of the oil by distillation, separate the clear oil from the water, dry it by shaking with anhydrous calcium chloride, filter. It is a colorless liquid, conforming to the properties and tests of oil of turpentine, sp. gr. 0.865; evaporate 5 Ml. (Cc.) - residue .015 Gm. Should be kept cool, in well-stoppered, amber-colored bottles, and dispensed when oil of turpentine is required for internal use. Dose, stimulant, diuretic, v-30 (.3-2 Ml. (Cc.)); anthelmintic, 3ss-4 (2-15 Ml. (Cc.)), on sugar or emulsified.

Preps.: 1. Emulsum Olei Terebinthinae. Emulsion of Oil of Turpentine. (Syn., Emuls. Ol. Tereb., Turpentine Emulsion; Fr. Emulsion d'essence de Terebenthine; Ger. Terpentinolemulsion.) Manufacture: 15 p. c. Add to dry bottle acacia 15 Gm., then rectified oil of turpentine 15 Ml. (Cc.), expressed oil of almond 5 Ml. (Cc.), shake thoroughly, add water 30 Ml. (Cc.), shake vigorously; when emulsified add syrup 25 Ml. (Cc.), in several portions, shaking after each, finally add water, in divided portions, with shaking, q. s. 100 Ml. (Cc.). Dose, 3j-8 (4-30 Ml. (Cc.)). 2. Terpini Hydras. Terpin Hydrate, C10H18(OH)2 + H2O. (Syn., Terpin. Hyd.; Fr. Dihydrate de terebenthene (terpilene); Terpinum hydratum, Terpinhydrat.) Manufacture: This hydrate of the dihydric alcohol terpin is obtained by mixing in a shallow dish rectified oil of turpentine (4), alcohol (3), nitric acid (1), allowing to stand 3-4 days, collecting crystals, draining, drying on filter paper, recrystalliz-ing from alcohol rendered slightly alkaline to remove adhering acid. It is in colorless, lustrous, rhombic prisms, nearly odorless, slightly aromatic (resembling fresh lilacs, but not turpentine); somewhat bitter taste, efflorescent in dry air; soluble in water (200), boiling water (34), alcohol (13), boiling alcohol (3), chloroform (135), boiling glacial acetic acid (1); hot, saturated aqueous solution not acid to litmus. Tests: 1. Heated slowly at 100; C. (212° F.) - sublimes in fine needles; quickly heated - melts at 116° C. (241° F.) with the loss of water; also loses water of crystallization slowly over sulphuric acid. 2. Hot aqueous solution with a few drops of sulphuric acid - turbid, developing a strongly aromatic odor; incinerate 2 Gm. - ash .05 p. c Should be kept cool, in well-closed containers. Dose, gr. 2-15 (.13-1 Gm.); elixir, 1.75 p. c, 3j-2 (4-8 Ml. (Cc.)); elixir with codeine; elixir with diacetylmorphine.

2, Linimentum Terebinthinae. Turpentine Liniment. (Syn., Lin. Terebinth., Kentish's Ointment; Fr. Liniment Terebenthine; Ger. Terpintinliniment.)

Manufacture: 35 p. c. Dissolve rosin cerate 65 Gm., previously melted in a dish on a water-bath, in oil of turpentine 35 Gm.; mix thoroughly; used externally.

3. Terebenum. Terebene, C10H16. (Syn., Tereben.; Fr. Terebene; Ger. Tereben.)

Manufacture: This liquid, consisting of dipentene (chiefly) and other hydrocarbons (terpinene, cymol, camphene, etc.) is obtained by adding gradually sulphuric acid (1) to oil of turpentine (20), allowing to stand for 24 hours, removing supernatant layer, neutralizing with chalk, distilling, further rectifying with steam. It is a colorless, thin liquid, rather agreeable, thyme-like odor, aromatic, somewhat tere-binthinate taste, soluble in alcohol (3), slightly in water; on exposure to light gradually becomes resinified and of acid reaction, sp. gr. 0.863, boils at 166° C. (331° F.). Impurities: Rosin, unaltered oil of turpentine. Should be kept dark, in well-closed containers. Dose, v-15 (.3-1 Ml. (Cc.)).

Unoff. Prep.: Linimentum Terebinthinae Aceticum (Br.), 44.5 p. c. (rectified oil), glacial acetic acid 11, liniment of camphor 44.5.

II. Rosin: 1. Ceratum Resinae. Rosin Cerate. (Syn., Cerat. Res., Basilicon Ointment, Unguentum Tetrapharmacum; Br. Unguentum Resinae; Fr. Cerat (onguent) de Resine anglais; Ger. Konigssalbe, Harzsalbe, Zugsalbe.)

Manufacture: 35 p. c. Heat until liquefied rosin 35 Gm., add yellow wax 15 Gm., lard 50 Gm., strain, allow to congeal, occasionally stirring; in cold weather may use yellow wax 12, lard 53.

Prep.: 1. Linimentum Terebinthinae, 65 p. c, see above.

2. Emplastrum Resinae. Rosin Plaster. (Syn., Emp. Res., Rosin Adhesive Plaster, Adhesive Plaster; Fr. Emplatre resineux (adhesif); Ger. Emplastrum adhaesivum, Heftpflaster.)

Manufacture: 14 p. c. Melt together, with gentle heat, lead plaster 80 Gm., yellow wax 6 Gm., add rosin 14 Gm., when melted mix thoroughly, strain, cool, stir until stiff.

3. Ceratum Cantharidis, 17.5 p. c.

Properties. I. Oil of Turpentine. - Internally - stimulant, carminative, cathartic, anthelmintic, haemostatic, expectorant, diuretic, diaphoretic, antipyretic. Externally - rubefacient, irritant, counter-irritant, antiseptic, disinfectant; contracts vessels, increases peristalsis, gastric secretion, stimulates heart, depresses nervous system. Large doses produce gastro-enteritis, vomiting, diarrhoea, suppressed urine, lumbar pains, urethral burning, haematuria, strangury, insensibility, death by paralyzed respiration. It is excreted by the skin, bronchi, and kidneys; inhaling vapors give nasal, ocular, and renal irritation.