Hydrargyri Chloridum Corrosivum. Corrosive Mercuric Chloride. Corrosive Sublimate

Known as bichloride of mercury, or "bichloride." Made by subliming bisulphate of mercury with chloride of sodium. Soluble in 16 parts of cold water. It is a powerful germicide under certain conditions, and is ordinarily used as a disinfectant solution for the skin, for dressings, etc., in a strength of 1:1000. It is not an efficient disinfectant in the case of stools, or bloody or purulent discharges, as it hardens albumin, thus forming a protective shell within which germs retain perfectly their vitality. White materials are stained yellow by bichloride of mercury, and it is not always desirable therefore as a disinfectant for clothing.1

The external use of bichloride of mercury, as in dressing surgical and obstetrical cases, may produce symptoms of poisoning which must not be overlooked. Among the latter class of cases an eruption of small pimples appears about the buttocks and may extend down the limbs. Sore gums, fetid breath, and salivation may follow. The eruption should always be reported as soon as noticed. In chronic poisoning by this preparation there is more tendency to abdominal pains, diarrhoea, and colic.

Internally in small over-doses it causes nausea, burning in the stomach, colicky abdominal pain, and diarrhoea; or, these symptoms may not be prominent and a sore ulcerated mouth may show the toxic action. In poisonous doses it is a violent irritant and caustic, and the symptoms appear in a few moments - viz., a metallic taste, the mucous lining of the mouth sometimes glazed and white, vomiting of mucus and blood, dysenteric purging, tenesmus, and cramps, with fetid breath. Violent abdominal pain is sometimes, not always, present. The urine is diminished, may contain blood and albumin, may be suppressed. In the course of two or three hours there is collapse, with small, quick, irregular pulse, pinched, anxious face, cold extremities, syncope, convulsions, coma, and death.

The smallest fatal dose is not absolutely certain, but may be put at 3 to 5 grains. Death usually takes place in from 1 to 5 days, but may be earlier or later than this. On recovery the convalescence is long and tedious.

The antidote is albumin, milk, gluten (flour), or, best of all, the white of egg, in proportion of 1 egg to 4 grains of the poison. More than this is said to redis-solve the mercury.

1 For this purpose the solution of salt and sulphate of zinc is better. See zinc.

Vomiting should be promptly induced and actively kept up for a time after taking the antidote.

Average dose, gr. 1/20-0.003 Gm., well diluted and given after meals. All other non-purgative preparations are, as a rule, taken after meals also.

Hydrargyri Salicylas. Mercuric Salicylate

Average dose, gr. 1/15-0.004 Gm.

Hydrargyri Iodidum Flavum. Yellow Mercurous Iodide. Protoiodide Of Mercury

Average dose, gr. 1/6-0.01 Gm.

Hydrargyri Iodidum Rubrum. Red Iodide Of Mercury. Biniodide Of Mercury

Average dose, gr. 1/20-0.003 Gm.

Hydrargyri Chloridum Mite. Mild Mercurous Chloride. Calome

Made by subliming sulphate of mercury and chloride of sodium. A white, insoluble powder, used as a cathartic and indirect cholagogue.

It increases the amount of bile evacuated from the intestines without directly increasing the amount secreted by the liver. In the ordinary routine of digestion part of the bile in the intestines is re-absorbed and carried back to the liver; but by the action of calomel this is all expelled from the body, the result being that the next quantity secreted must all be newly formed, out of fresh materials.

Salivation occurs more frequently from the use of calomel than from other mercurials except blue pill, and it has an insidious harmful effect on the teeth, tending to retract the gums and expose the unprotected roots. Being tasteless and insoluble, it is best given dry on the tongue, with some water after it. It is slow in its action, requiring from 8 to 12 hours if given alone. Salty food should not be taken after calomel, as alkaline chlorides change it into bichloride. Acids also are often forbidden, though this is not now considered very important.

It should never be used as a home remedy. Average dose, gr. i.-0.06 Gm., as laxative.

Massa Hydrargyri. Mass Of Mercury. Blue Mass

Made by combining mercury in the metallic state with glycyrrhiza, althaea, etc. It contains one third its weight of the metal, and is used, like calomel, as a purgative, but is milder. Each pill contains usually from 3 to 5 grains of the mass, equalling gr. 1/3 of metal. Average dose, gr. iv.-0.25 Gm.

Hydrargyrum Cum Creta. Mercury With Chalk

A gray powder, similar in its properties and strength to blue mass. It may be placed dry on the tongue or mixed with glycerin. Dose, gr. i.-v. (0.06-0.25 Gm.) The mercurial purgatives are abused by numbers of persons who prescribe for themselves. They should never be taken without authority, and it is also to be remembered that many quack purgative medicines, "liver pills," etc., contain mercury in uncertain quantities, and are harmful.

Unguentum Hydrargyri. Mercurial Ointment

Composed of mercury, benzoinated lard, suet, and oleate of mercury. Strength about 50%. The diluted ointment is called "blue."

Unguentum Hydrargyri Oxidi Flavi. Ointment Of Yellow Mercuric Oxide

Strength, 10 %.

Unguentum Hydrargyri Ammoniati. Ointment Of Ammoniated Mercury

Strength, 10 %.

Unguentum Hydrargyri Nitratis. Ointment Of Mercuric Nitrate. Citrine Ointment

Strength, 7 %. Contains also nitric acid. Black Wash. Not official.

Calomel ʒ i, lime-water O. j. Used externally.