(From as, copper,) flowers of copper; anthos, phrasium viride, etc. Copper reduced to small grains, by pouring cold water on it when in a state of fusion. The cold water is poured on the copper as it runs out of the furnace into the receiver.

-------------,Squamae, flakes of copper, fly off in hammering the metal when heated. The best are of a deep yellow colour, and rust if sprinkled with vinegar. These, from the Cyprian copper works, are called helitis.

-------------vel Veneris tinctura. R Aerug. aeris 3 j aquae ammon. et sp. vin. R. Aeris Flos 200 ss. m. et stent simul, donee aqua colorem saphirinum acquisiverit. This tincture is an admirable preparation to make an injection for a gonorrhoea, if care be taken duly to dilute it, and skill enough is possessed to know when the infection is only in the urethra: to an ounce of pure water, add one drop of the above tincture. Astringent injections are, however, especially in the early stages of the complaint, dangerous.

Dr. W. Saunders observes, in his Lectures on the Mat. Med. that all solutions of metals are sedative, or ease pain, provided that the solution is not too strong.

Veneris volatilis tinctura: Rx. Limaturae cupri. 3 j aquae ammon. 3 xij.m. This solution hath been given internally to the quantity of four or five drops at a dose, as a diuretic. Boerhaave directs to be given three drops, in a morning fasting, with a glass of mead, and this dose to be daily doubled until the dose is twenty-four drops, to be continued for some days: thus he succeeded sometimes in curing dropsies, though in other instances it failed. When effectual, it produced very copious discharges of urine. This tincture is a good substitute for the cuprum ammoniacum of the Edinburgh Dispensatory.

Metallic astringents are more active than alum, more powerful, more easily and more quickly dissolved in the stomach; are more diffusive and extensive in their influence on the habit, and to be preferred when speedy effects are to be obtained. Of all the metals, copper is the most astringent, and most soluble in the stomach; but the dose is difficultly ascertained, because of the uncertainty of acid in the stomach, so that it is rarely used. Dr. Saunders observes, that an over dose of the aerugo aeris is active, stimulant, and astringent, and so quickly proves emetic as to be thrown up before it hurts; that an under dose excites a nausea. This is of course most advantageous; but the tinc. Veneris vol. if given so as to purge and vomit, by its sudden action produces very good effects.

Dr. G. Fordyce advises us to avoid cupreous preparations, when the intention is to strengthen; but when it is designed to lessen irritability, he observes, they are extremely useful, particularly in hysteric cases attended with plethora, and in epileptic spasms. In several instances of intermittents, and of mortifications, the preparations of copper, such as were in a saline state, as the cuprum ammoniacale, the cuprum vitriolatum, and the tinct. Veneris vol. were equally efficacious with the bark; in this last case, the cuprum vitriolatum to gr. ss. for a dose has been very successful.

The copper, combined with the volatile alkali, either in the tinctures above described or in the cuprum ammoniacale, is undoubtedly an excellent remedy in epilepsies, and seems to act by lessening irritability. This is perhaps the principle by which also iron, zinc, and arsenic, produce their effect; but of these, iron seems to approach more nearly to what we with greater strictness call an astringent, q. v. Combined with zinc, the zincum ustum, or vitriol of zinc, the copper is often more effectual. Of intermittents, the copper and zinc are best adapted to the partial cases of the disease, as the hemicrania, etc.; the arsenic to the more general forms.

Dr. Brown, in his Natural History of Jamaica, prefers preparations of copper in those dropsies which proceed from a general languor of the solid, system, in which case they prove very useful as diuretics and strengtheners. He prefers the tinc. Veneris vol. to all

G other preparations of this metal. In hot climates, where the body is much relaxed, the vitriol of copper is, he thinks, the best detergent of foul ulcers.

See Neumann's Chem. Works. Dict, of Chem. edit. ii.