Chestnuts, (from Castana, a city in Thessaly from whence they were brought). Called also lopima, mota, glans Jovis Theophrasti, Jupiter's acorn, and Sardinian acorn. Fagus Castanea Lin. Sp. Pi. 1416. The coat between the kernel and shell is astringent; the kernel is indigestible, and supposed to be astringent; but if roasted and mixed with honey, it is commended for coughs and spitting of blood. See Aliment.

Castanea. Flore. albo, etc. See Coffea.

Castanea equina. Horse chestnut. See Hippocastanum.

Castanea castjoe. See Terra Japonica. Castle-leod Waters. This mineral water is found at Castle-leod, in Ross-shire: and at this place a spring of strong sulphureous water has been in great repute for many years. Dr. D. Monro, in his analysis, found a gallon to contain about 59 grains of solid matter; viz. of absorbent earth 1 3/5 grain; of selenite 26 3/5 grains; of saline matter 30 3/5 grains; the greatest part of which is true Glauber's salt, mixed with a little sulphur, and probably a very small portion of marine bittern. This water is said to be sensibly diuretic, and sometimes to increase perspiration. It increases the appetite, and sits light on the stomach; sometimes occasioning a little headach, but of no long duration, nor to any great degree. Dr. Mackenzie has directed •people with various complaints to drink these waters; and observes, that cutaneous eruptions have been cleared by their use, the herpes removed, the erysipelas received benefit, and foul ulcers cured. Dr. Monro asserts, that many of those cutaneous disorders called scorbutic have been removed by their means, and that they cure the itch. As this water contains but a small portion of purging salt, and does not operate by stool, all these virtues are very incredible, and are probably the offspring of fancy or superstition. To render them really useful, some purging salt may be occasionally added to the first glass that is taken in the morning; and if equal parts of this and sea water be mixed, they will form a purging sulphureous water, similar to that of Harrowgate. See Monro, vol. ii. Medical and Pharmaceutical Chemistry.