(From cooperio, to cover over ). Covering, clothing, or a small cloak, by which the body is defended from the air, the same as Coopertio 2362 amictus, from co-operire, tegere, to cover, in which sense it is several times used by Hippocrates. It is applied to the belly, and uterus investing the foetus; and also to a medicament, which is placed upon the tooth, involving it like a plaster, by Scribonius.

To this article we have referred a most important subject, viz. clothing in general, on which the health greatly depends, and in diseases meriting also the most scrupulous attention.

The ancients furnish little information; for their clothes were uniformly woollens, seldom probably cleansed in the washing tub. The inconvenience from this source they avoided by frequent bathing, while the limbs were anointed with oil, on coming from the bath.

Linen was unknown till after their connexion with Egypt in the time of Augustus, and then not generally used: the series vestes were cotton; for the country of the Seres, the lesser Bulgaria, is unfavourable for the propagation of the silk worm, and the ancients were unacquainted with China, or any country to the east of the Gulf of Martaban. A proof of their ignorance of silk is, that in the time even of Justinian it was sold for its weight of gold. We mention these circumstances chiefly to explain the cause of the slight attention paid to this subject by the ancient physicians; for, however changeable the climate, they suffered little in consequence of their woollen dresses, which we have no reason to think were peculiarly fine or thin. In more modern periods it is a subject of peculiar importance; and, when we consider the most modern fashions, calls for the strictest attention.

How can you bear the access of cold air to your naked body ? asked an European of a Canadian Indian. I am all face, he replied; meaning that custom had rendered it familiar. Were we in a state of nature, this reply-might be satisfactory: yet we know that catarrhs 3R and-rheumatisms are the most constant diseases of the savage. In polished life, a more particular inquiry is necessary.

The interior clothing of the present period consists of linen, of cotton, or of flannel. The first, usually worn next the skin, must be frequently changed. The effect of frequent change is to keep up perspiration, and it was even supposed to produce emaciation. The only real inconvenience of linen is, that it absorbs moisture slowly; in other words, its hygrometrical affinity is inconsiderable, and if for a short time removed from the body after copious perspiration, it feels damp and cold. We bear, however, with this inconvenience from the comfort we feel in changing it; nor, when used only as the garment, next the skin, is it ever materially injurious.

The hygrometrical affinity of cotton is more considerable, and calico, for shirts or bed gowns, is preferable. For children, on many accounts, it is the only proper shirting. To the feeling it is warmer than linen, though less pleasant; though it equally at least promotes perspiration. In the more improved state of the manufacture of calicos, there is little distinction either in point of comfort or salubrity between them and linens; yet, in the latter view, they are on the whole preferable.

The hydrometrical affinity of flannel is still more considerable; and copious indeed must be the perspiration that makes them inconveniently damp. To this must be added, that the spiculae of the wool stimulate the surface and excite the action of the cutaneous vessels, while the inconvenient roughness is soon, from custom, unobserved. It may now appear that we have proved little more than the superiority of flannel to calico, and of this to linen; yet, we think, we have placed their different merits on such a foundation as will elucidate many modifications of our clothing.

Our upper garments, in this climate, are generally of woollen; and, where this material is not used, we compensate by numerous folds for the thinner texture, and the increased conducting power of heat.

This last circumstance, of the greatest importance in our present consideration, we have explained in the ar-tle Caloric. Air is a bad conductor of heat, and polished surfaces receive it slowly. Hair and wool, therefore, whose surfaces are polished, conduct heat imperfectly, and more so in proportion to their fineness, which occasions the more frequent interposition of aerial molecules, and their little affinity for heat. This renders the eiderdown so peculiarly warm. We did not mention the effect of this circumstance in our comparison of the internal coverings of our bodies, not to confuse it with the hygrometrical affinity, and because it is more peculiarly applicable here; but its influence will be sufficiently obvious. As conductors of heat, from the body, silk is more powerful than cotton, and cotton than woollen. Each is colder, therefore, in the same proportion than that which follows. Black also conducts heat from without better than white, and the more refrangible rays better than the less refrangible. In warm weather, therefore, these colours are warmer in the same order. Count Rumford's later refinements on this subject, are not sufficiently established to induce us to enlarge on them.

These considerations will lead us to a choice of clothing, in different circumstances, for the preservation of health. In general, we have erred by clothing ourselves too thin, and changing our dress too early in the summer. It was formerly a rule, even when the seasons were seemingly more forward than at present, to "keep the winter dress till May be done;" but we now change it more early, or adopt that of the demi-saison, which is scarcely more warm than the dress of summer. It is not, however, the real warmth which is of so much consequence, as the sudden changes of dress in the same day; not according to the change of temperature, but to fashion. The drawing-room may, indeed, be warm, but the passages which lead to the door are cold; and the modern fine lady is ill adapted for so sudden a change, eitherfrom dress or habit. It has been remarked, that consumptions have been much more frequent in Scotland since the plaid has been disused; and in England, we fear, from the present fashions, they will be still more abundant than at any former period.

It has been constantly remarked, that the breast and the feet should be carefully guarded from cold. We see sufficient reason, from theory and experience, for the latter caution; and it will not be difficult to explain the former, when we reflect, that a local chill determines the fluids to the internal parts of the same organ. Thus, chills in the breast produce catarrhs and peripneu-mony; in the extremities, rheumatism; in the face, coryza and ophthalmia.

The application of different kinds of clothing to different diseases, presents some variety which merits attention. In the thin emaciated habits, flannel has been forbidden. It exhausts, it is said, too much; yet these are generally susceptible of cold; and by this safeguard we avoid its most unpleasant effects. Such plans, however, should be conducted with a discriminated caution. If flannel be adopted, cold air should not be excluded, and the patient accustomed to a moderate breeze, till habit allows of greater cold with impunity. Calico should in the summer be substituted for flannel, and the period of its wear protracted annually; while in spring the flannel should be earlier thrown off. The changes, for a time, should be conducted with care; and in the height of summer the cold bath will assist this progressive improvement. In general, however, flannel does little harm if free air be allowed. Its object is to guard against the bad effects of cold air; nor should it be worn if the air is at the same time carefully excluded.

When, however, 'the object is to produce and continue a free discharge of sweat, flannel is essentially necessary. The "nine times dyed blue flannel"has certainly the virtues of common woollens, and no other. Flannels were formerly worn when the patient was confined to bed in fevers, in a profuse sweat, to promote concoction. At present they are employed only in rheumatisms, and occasionally in salivations. In each their utility is obvious. In fevers at present, fresh linen is usually allowed daily, and the patient feels the highest gratification from the change; and calico in this state is not equally grateful, certainly not more advantageous, except the perspiration is very profuse.

We must add, that the flannels should be frequently changed and washed. Those who would think themselves injured if they did not change their linen daily, will often not change their flannel for months. Flannel shirts should never be worn above two or three days without being rinsed in cold spring water, and hung in open, free air.

Extraordinary warmth of clothing should be admitted with caution; and in no instance, unless it can be steadily employed. In general, it should be the object to bear changes of temperature with impunity; but this invulnerable constitution can only be gained by degrees. Those accustomed to indulgences should proceed with the utmost caution, and be aware that the attempt is highly dangerous. The cautions already suggested, will form their chief security.

Besides the clothing mentioned, modern refinement has introduced some new manufactures. The shawl, the eiderdown, and the Shetland wool, owe their peculiar advantages to the fineness of the texture, in the way already explained. The fleecy hosiery is a manufacture of cotton, where the inner surface is raised into a soft, flocculent pile. As it does not possess the stimulus of wool, we doubt if it is greatly superior to the fine soft woollens. Common consent, perhaps fashion, gives it the preference, and the dictates of fashion we shall not oppose. The fine fur of animals often covers the skin, and is peculiarly warm; but it must be employed, in health, with caution, as its disuse is dangerous. It may be an useful lesson to add, that ladies should scarcely ever change their "bosom friend."velvets are warm from their weight, rather than their pile; plushes from both. The cause of the coldness of silks will be sufficiently obvious from their texture; but the oiled silk, or linen, is warm, from preventing all access of air, and closely confining the heat of the body.