(Quasi gradimeri, from gradior, to creep along, from the extension of its roots). Grass.

Grasses are one of the seven natural families, into which all vegetables are distributed by Linnaeus. They are defined to be plants which have very simple leaves, a jointed stem, a husky calyx, termed gluma, and a single seed. In Tournefort they constitute a part of the fifteenth class, termed apetali; and in the sexual system of Linnaeus they are mostly contained in the second order of the third class, termed triandria digynia . Wheat, oats, barley, and rye, are grasses improved by culture. Grasses form the fourteenth order in the fragments of a natural method in Philosophia Botanica, and the fourth of the natural orders at the end of Genera Plantarum.

Gramen avenaceum. See AEgylops.

Gramen caninum; also called gramen Dioscoridis; gramen repens, and loliaceum radice repente; quick grass; cough grass; and dog's grass. The French call it chien-dent; triticum rep ens Lin. Sp. Pl. 128. It is a creeping perennial grass, of a whitish green colour, with knotty stalks, bearing a spike of imperfect flowers, somewhat resembling a wheat ear; the roots are whitish, or of a pale yellow, long, slender, jointed at distances, variously bent and interwoven.

The roots are sweetish, mildly aperient, and supposed to be deobstruent, diuretic, useful in ulcers of the bladder, strangury, and calculus biliaris. A considerable quantity of the expressed juice of fresh roots must be taken every day, if any benefit is expected. Sheep and cattle greatly improve in spring by the fresh grass, which produces a diarrhoea, and a discharge often of calculi.

Gramen crucis, cyperioidis, and AEgyptiacum, neiem-elsalib, are roots in medicine named cyperi. The plants which produce them grow in watery places, have leaves and flowers in some measure resembling the water grasses, and are called cyperus grasses; AEgyptian cock's foot grass, or grass of the cross. The roots and plants possess the same virtues as the dog's grass, and are serviceable in the earlier stages of dropsy. They are supposed to correct the bad smell of the breath; to relieve nephritic disorders, colics, and uterine complaints; and are taken in powder and decoction, though the present practice properly disregards them.

The long and round cyperus are produced from the c. longus and esculentus Lin. Sp. Pl. 67. Some other species, particularly the c. odoratus, are employed, and some species of the carex occasionally substituted for them.

Gramen dactylon; also called dactylon radice re-fiente; gramen dactyloides; gramen canarium ischcemi paniculis; gramen legitimum; cock's foot grass. panicum dactylon Lin. Sp. Pl. 85; grows in fields and vineyards, in sandy places: its virtues are the same as those of dog's grass. See Gramen caninum.

Gramen dactylon aromattcum. See Juncus odoratus.

Gramen loliaceum. See Lolium.

Gramen mannae; gramen dactylon esculentum; ischaemon sativum: festuca fluitans Lin . Sp .Pl.111 . Russia seed and manna grass; grows in Germany and Poland: its seeds are small, oblong, pellucid, white, of a faint taste, and, when decorticated, similar to rice.

Gramen parnassi. See Parnassia.

Gramen spicatum. See Phalaris.