The washout closet is, perhaps, the best sanitary water closet, and they are made by nearly all manufacturers of sanitary fixtures. This closet is made with the bowl and trap combined in one single piece. The washout closet would be almost perfect if it were set up and connected as intended to be, and with a good local vent connected. The local vent is the best possible thing that could be attached to a water closet, but, like all other arrangements, it must be made in such a way so that it will operate at all times and during every condition of the atmosphere. The local vent is connected to the bowl of the closet for the purpose of taking away the air from the bowl of the closet in the room where it may be located, so that no foul odors while being used will pass from the closet to the room.

Water Closets 172

Fig. 122.

Water Closets 173

Fig. 123.

Water Closets 174

Fig. 124.

Water Closets 175

Fig. 125.

To make the local vent work satisfactorily at all times it will be necessary to arrange the pipes so that there would always be a suction in the pipe drawing from the point which is connected with the water closet bowl. This pipe can never be connected with the main ventilating shaft of the soil pipe, but must escape from the house by some other channel. In order to cause this local current of air to pass up and out of the house from the water closet bowl, it will be necessary to provide some artificial heat for this purpose. And where it is possible to connect to a chimney flue that is always warm when the house is occupied, the desired result may be had without any additional expense.

The washout closet is far from being an ideal sanitary fixture. It is an improvement over the hopper style of closet, yet its principle is not correct because it does not wash out. The objection to the washout closet is, that its bowl becomes filthy in a short time, and without having attached to it a local vent the bad odors from the bowl become unbearable. In the bowl of the washout closet there is too much dry surface, and the soil clings to it and cannot be washed off with the flow of water as it falls from the tank. The appearance of the inside of this closet is also very bad, especially the style of washout with the back outlet as shown in Fig. 126.

Fig. 127 shows a washout closet with front outlet.

A short oval flushing rim hopper water closet, with trap and air vent on the top of syphon is shown in Fig. 128.

Two styles of seat operated water closets are shown in Figs. 129 and 130, one with long hopper without trap and the other with short hopper and trap. The seat is normally kept open by the weight shown to the right, when depressed by the act of a person sitting upon the closet, the small arm or lever attached to the seat comes into contact with the plunger valve, causing the water to flow as long as the seat is down. A syphon jet water closet with low down tank

is shown in Fig. 131. It is necessary with this style of tank to increase the diameter of the flush pipe in order to induce syphonage in the closet. With this increased opening a large quantity of water is thrown into the closet, which is sufficient to make the syphon operate.

Water Closets 176

Fig. 126.

Water Closets 177

Fig. 127.

Water Closets 178

Fig. 128.

Water Closets 179

Fig. 129.

A prison water closet with short hopper and trap to wall connection is shown in Fig. 132. A wood, copper-lined syphon tank and concealed water supply pipe is shown in Fig. 133.

Water Closets 180

Fig. 130.

self-closing faucet is connected to the flushing rim. A syphon jet closet set up complete with hard-

Water Closets 181

Fig. 131.

Water closet seats with legs and with or without lid are shown in Figs. 134 and 135.

The proper sanitary plumbing connections for a washout water closet are shown in Fig. 136.

Water Closets 182

Fig. 132.

The cast iron soil pipe and the lead elbow which connects the trap of the closet with the soil pipe are both 4 inches inside diameter while the air-vent from the lead elbow and the main air pipe are 2 inches inside diameter. The air-vent pipe is of lead and the main air pipe of cast iron.

Water Closets 183

Fig. 133.

Water Closets 184

Fig. 134.

Water Closets 185

Fig. 135.