2 ounces Dragon's-blood dissolved in a quart of rectified spirits of wine, shake frequently during process of dissolution.


In 1 gallon of water boil 1/2 pound of madder and 2 ounces of logwood chips, brush the decoction, whilst hot, well over, and when dry, paint over the work with a solution of pearlash, composed of 2 drams of pearlash to a quart of water.


In 1 quart of oil of turpentine dissolve 2 ounces of Dragon's-blood, keeping the vessel in a warm place, and frequently shaking it. When completely dissolved, the mixture is to be applied to the work, or if the latter be small, it may be steeped in the stain.

Grind raw sienna on a slab, using beer as a medium, during grinding, add burnt sienna until the desired color is obtained. This mixture is then to be thinned, either with more beer or with water, and is to be applied with a brush, and wiped off with a piece of flannel. It is desirable to avoid foxey colored mahogany, and if this stain should give too brown a color, a wash made of madder or logwood boiled in water may be passed either entirely or partially over it. The work may then be oiled, varnished, or polished, as desired.

Dragon's-blood is a name given to several resins found in commerce, which have a similar appearance, a fine dark red. They are produced by one or two species of calamus, or cane-palm, and are used for coloring varnishes, and for dyeing horn so as to make it resemble tortoise-shell. The following are the various kinds of dragon's-blood: In sticks, called stick dragon's-blood. Dragon's-blood in drops or beads, said to be the best. Dragon's-blood in tears. Dragon's-blood in lumps.

Madder is one of the most important coloring substances known, and there are several species of it. The plant is extensively cultivated in Southern Europe and in Holland. Very large quantities of the root come from Smyrna, Trieste, Leghorn, and other Mediterranean ports, much of that which is received from Holland is in powder, and comes in large casks. The Turks formerly understood the manufacture and uses of madder better than other nations, and the color thus obtained the name of Turkey red. In commerce there are the following varieties of common madder: Smyrna, French, Syrian, and Italian roots, and French, Dutch-crop, Ombros, and Mull ground madders.