The leveling or rough-stuff coats consist of a coarse mineral paint, designed to level down or fill up all imperfections in the surface of the carriage body, such as plane and file marks or brad holes.

The pigment is mixed with oil, japan varnish and turpentine, and although the painter may have a good recipe for this paint, and may mix it himself, he cannot rely upon getting exactly the same amount of elasticity at one time as at another time, if mixed in small quantities. Therefore the ready-prepared paint, mixed from a formula, which experience and careful tests have proved best, and mixed in large quantities by weight and measure is by far the surest and safest to use. The filler priming on the body being dry, it only requires a good dusting when it is ready for the rough-stuff. This for the first coat should have a very little raw oil added to make it more in keeping with the elastic priming, and it must not be spread too thick, thick coats are apt to show brush marks, and brush marks in the rough-stuff will show in the finishing varnish. Put the rough-stuff on smoothly and set the body away for 48 hours to harden, or, if preferred, when 24 hours have passed the largest holes may be puttied part full, then give the other 24 hours for drying.

The second, third and fourth coats of rough-stuff may be put on one day apart, then a thin coat of stain, to guide the workman while rubbing, some yellow ochre or other cheap pigment mixed in japan and turpentine, may be added.

Rough-stuff will always give better satisfaction when applied in a medium thin coat. It is entirely against common sense to plaster on a great mass of this paint, with the desire to level the work quickly.

When the work of rubbing is completed, the body should be washed clean, and well dried off with a chamois skin, then set aside for the evaporation of moisture from the porous paint.

This drying out is of vital importance, and should never be neglected.

Rough-stuff, providing it is good-rubbing' rough-stuff, is necessarily porous, no matter what pigment or vehicle is used, and a portion of the water used in rubbing is absorbed by it, therefore it is essential, after the moisture has all been evaporated, that the pores be closed, in order that the oil of subsequent coats may not be absorbed by them.

It is the aim in this system of painting to form a non-absorptive surface, and it will be seen that if the filler closed up the pores of the wood it will assuredly close up the pores of the leveling paint, therefore, a coating is applied to the rubbed surface of paint in the same manner as in priming the wood, wiping off all that will readily leave the surface, thus rendering the paint elastic, yet proof against the entrance of oil from all subsequent coats of color or of varnish.