Gilding On Iron

The following directions are for putting on japan and gilding on ironwork: The articles to be japanned are clean of oil, usually by the use of turpentine, and the japan varnish applied, when the articles are placed in a hot oven to dry. To gild japanned articles, the part to be gilded is covered with oil size, thinned with turpentine, and gold powder put on with a puff. This is then varnished and moderately heated in an oven. Leaf gold may be applied in the same way.

Glass Window Writing

To mix colors: Mix dry fine colors with clear varnish or linseed oil, turpentine, and driers, also dry colors, gold size, and turpentine. By using dry colors a good body is obtained. As to background, use quick drying varnish and dry colors or gold size and turpentine, these will dry quickly. Rich brown: 2 parts black, 1 part yellow, 3 parts red, 3 parts turpentine, 1 part oil, a little gold size, and drier. Olive color: 16 parts lemon chrome, 2 parts Prussian blue, 2 parts lampblack, 3 parts turpentine, to 1 part oil, driers, and gold size. For black letters get as much black as required, and mix with gold size and turpentine, turpentine mostly, to required thickness. Any other color can be treated in the same way. For background use pure white lead, and mix with maple varnish and turpentine, for cream color stain with lemon chrome and yellow ochre in oil and stipple with a new brush. Do not paint letters and background same day, or they will work into one another.

Inert Pigments

An inert pigment is one which, when mixed with oil, will have no chemical action upon it. It will have no chemical effect upon any other substance with which it is mixed, as for instance barytes, silica and gypsum. On the other hand, white lead, Prussian blue, and chrome yellow, are chemical colors, and are supposed to chemically affect the oil and some other pigments.

Making Plaster Set Quickly Or Slowly

In order to make plaster set quickly, mix it with water into which a little sulphate of potash has been dissolved. To make it set slowly, mix it with fine slaked lime. The time of setting may be regulated by changing the relative quantities.


The various compounds of manganese are perhaps more used than any other driers. Of these the black manganese contains most oxygen, but many regard it as less useful than umber, which contains considerable manganese, and also iron. Umber is thought by some to make a less sensitive oil, that is, a fluid oil, or varnish, which changes less on exposure to the cold. Both manganese and umber lose some of their substance in the oil, but to what extent manganese' or iron soaps are formed with the oil acids is not known. Both umber and black manganese boiled with oil darken it.