Many useful and ornamental pieces of work can be turned out on the speed lathe; light- and dark-colored woods in combination, formed into designs, are often used to produce effects on turned work that are artistic; and the student is advised, whenever possible and time permits, to design and build up pieces of such work where the contrast between the woods will be marked. The results will more than compensate for the trouble and work of glueing up the stock.
In preparing stock for such work the surfaces should be planed to a perfect fit before being glued together, as a poor joint would be likely to ruin the work while being operated on in the lathe.
In the following supplementary exercises there has been no effort made to introduce what is usually termed "fancy turning," such as the turning of elliptical forms, turning balls inside a ball, turning loose rings on a spindle, trefoils, and work which requires much manipulation in chucks. The projects selected are ones which the average student should be able to carry out successfully, in view of his previous experience. Students are advised, at this stage, to submit original designs to the instructor in charge, that the difficulties connected with the execution of these pieces may be made subjects for class discussion.
The exercises, Figs. 74 to 87, are intended to supplement previous work, and are also suggestive for larger pieces and practice in developing speed in turning out work on the lathe.
The names of the following pieces are given as suggestions for the student to design. When a large piece is turned, it is rarely turned from solid stock, but is built up. In designing a piece this should be taken into consideration, so that the joints may not be too conspicuous, unless the woods were light and dark, when the joints should be absolutely symmetrical with the axis of the piece.
Names of pieces. Piano stool (may be combined with a piece of bench work), legs for colonial table (the top and shelf would be bench work), serving trays, bread boards, table mats, candlesticks, bowls for nuts, rose jars, vases, spindles for furniture, legs for pieces of furniture, pedestals, base and pen rack for ink stand, foot rests, game boards, circular hand mirrors, collar and cuff box, jewel boxes, walking sticks, match safes, etc.
Fig. 74. Policeman's Club. (Material: Locust, Greenheart).
Lack of space requires that the figure be cut in its length. The principal part of this project being the handle, it is shown only for the beads. The tongue is straight work and should be finished with a paring cut. Finish the piece with two or three coats of linseed oil, and polish with a soft cloth
Fig. 75. Indian Club. (Material: Maple, Ash).
In cutting this piece to form, "size" the several diameters as explained in connection with the chisel handle, then cut down to the points. This method is termed "turning by ordinates"
Fig. 76. Bowl.
(Material: Birch, Oak, Walnut)
This piece should be mounted on a face plate with glue and paper, and templets should be used to cut by. This article is very useful on a library table as a catch-all, and if for any reason a cover is needed for it, one may very easily be designed. Finished in dark mahogany it presents a very pleasing effect
Fig. 77. Plate.
(Material: Black Walnut, Maple, Cherry, Mahogany, Oak ) Use glue and paper to hold the material on the face plate, and templets to work by
Fig. 78. Picture Frame.
(Material: Birch, Mahogany, Oak, Cherry)
Fig. 79. Powder Box. (Material: Oak, Cherry, Mahogany).
Fig. 80. Cup. (Material: Oak, Cherry, Birch, Walnut, Mahogany).
An attractive piece of work may be made of this, if built up of a combination of colored woods
Fig. 8i. Dumb-Bell. (Material: Maple) Use a templet to work by.
Fig. 82. Gavel. (Material: Snakewood, Ebony, Boxwood) Give a thin coat of shellac, and when dry smooth with fine sandpaper and polish with wax.
Fig. 83. Turning Tool Handles. (Material: Hickory, Apple).
Lathe tool handles are often broken by accident and must be replaced. In turning a handle, the size of the tang of the tool should be taken into account when procuring the ferrule. The drawings given above are for handles suitable for a 1/8-inch cut-off tool, a 3/8-inch or 3/8-inch skew chisel or gouge, and a 1/2-inch or 3/4-inch skew chisel or gouge. For larger tools the handles should be increased a little in diameter but not in length
Fig. 84. Towel Rings. (Material: Cherry, Maple, Birch).
Fig. 85. Vase. (Material: Whitewood, Birch, Cherry, Mahogany, or build up of light and dark woods, such as Cherry and Black Walnut)
Use the bell chuck
Fig. 86. Lamp Standard.
(Material: Oak, Mahogany; finish with dark stain)
The hole for the wire should be bored before placing in the lathe. Turn small plugs to place in the hole, at the ends, to support the piece. The base should be mounted on a screw-center chuck; the upper side turned first and finished; then it should be chucked so that the recess in the bottom can be turned. The hole on the edge will be bored with a bit
Fig. 87. Stocking and Glove Darner (Material: Maple, Cherry, Birch, or build up of light and dark colored woods).