The chuck fig. 735 is also employed for inlaying, an analogous surface ornamentation admitting considerable variety, and applicable to either large or small work. Eccentric circular grooves and apertures with nearly upright edges turned in the surface of the work, are filled with corresponding turned rings of some different material, cemented in their places; after which the whole is turned to a surface and polished. The narrow flat tool used is of less width than the grooves, which are gradually widened to their dimensions, cut in always from the face by their external and internal diameters. Of the six varieties indicated, that formed by rings, fig. 739, is most readily produced; every alternate circle is turned in the face of the work, they are then filled by their rings, and then with the work mounted centrally, these are turned down level with the surface. The remaining circles are next turned, intersecting the first, and filled with a similar or contrasting material, the work being then finally surfaced and polished. The discs forming the second pattern in this figure, are inlaid in corresponding recesses, every one except the first being cemented as it is placed in, and then partially turned away in sinking the next recess. The first disc, has to be withdrawn to turn the last recess, and the arc for its neighbour has also to be turned in its side.

Fig. 739. Fig. 740. Fig. 741.

Plain Turning Applied To Surface Ornamentation Par 400390

The rings forming the patterns in fig. 741, are cut across by hand into two series of similar pieces, previously to their insertion, while those in the remaining examples are more and unequally divided; all the grooves being sunk in the face of the work before any portions are inlaid. Similar inlaid patterns may be wrought upon cylindrical edges and in straight lines upon planes. For the former, the recesses are turned with the work mounted according to its size and terminal formation, in some of the upright chucks previously and subsequently described; the narrow flat tool used as before being advanced with increased caution, required by the intermittent cutting at the cylindrical surface edges of the recesses. Rectangular pieces, having first had the positions for the various centers marked upon their flat sides, are clamped down to a wood surface chuck, placed and shifted along against a straight edge, page 246, fixed to the face of the chuck at the requisite distances from its center.

Plain Turning Applied To Surface Ornamentation Par 400391

Plate XX

The Chandeliers, figs. 743. 744, both contain a flat circular plate as the main piece of the entire structure, the upper and pendant portions being inserted in the surfaces, and the branches, three or more in number, in its edge. When the edge is bored, the work held in the hand is advanced to the revolving drill by the point of the popit head; for three or five branches therefore, the edge previously marked with a central line has to be divided into six or ten parts, so as to place every successive aperture radial, in a line with the mandrel. A fine hole is first bored in this manner at every position for the better guidance of the following larger drills, and the point of the popit head; those intended for the arms, are then gradually enlarged to size, while the remaining holes may also be increased in diameter to receive small projecting ornaments, as in fig. 744, which carries a series. When more accuracy is required, the piece is clamped upon fig. 320, or upon some analogous chuck, the apertures may then be turned as plain or screwed fittings. The arms are passed through metal rings for the supporting cords or chains. The cylindrical edges of either example are appropriate for inlaid ornament, while the inserted hemispheres shown upon the one, might be turned upon the solid material, as in fig. 755, a method employed for similar but bolder pieces.

The Hanging Jardiniere, fig. 745, which is formed of several pieces and is five inches high, presents no peculiarities unde-scribed, except the serrated edge of the central plate. This may be added to it as a large ring, turned to the taper and abutting against a shoulder left at the upper edge; the pins attaching the three arms passing through its semi-circles. The ring for this purpose, reduced to the finished thickness, but left considerably too wide and fitted on a temporary wood core, is first divided into the number of parts required, and marked with the center punch. Small holes are then drilled at every center to guide the point of the center bit, which is used running in a chuck to bore a series of circular apertures completely through the ring, the work being advanced by the point of the popit head. These completed, one edge of the ring is turned away to the marginal width, and the ring still upon the core, is then divided through the diametrical line of the circles with the chisel, held and used upon its edge as in turning the surface. The taper serrated edge may also be turned in the solid; the piece then left of more than sufficient height, has the series of circular recesses turned in it with the flat tool, the work carried on a central pin and clamped to the sloping face of a surface chuck, or, mounted in fig. 755. The chisel is next employed, with the work mounted axially, to divide the circles as described; and the lower halves are then turned down, to the depth to which the recesses have been sunk; the edges of the plate being subsequently turned to shape. The larger parts of all three preceding examples would be turned in softwood, to be dyed and polished to agree with, or in contrast to, the other portions.

The methods of turning most parts of the Candelabra, fig. 746, twenty-two inches high, will be gathered from preceding examples. The six or eight branches, formed of halved rings connected by pins or screws on interposed collars, are inserted in the edge of a central piece; a similar formation obtaining in the tripod foot. The stem extending in a single length from the one to the other, is inserted in the amphora, which latter is secured in the circular base; the surrounding spirally arranged leaves, being turned in the solid with the stem, as a series of cups of the profiles and at the distances required. The width of the part of every cup to be left to form the leaf, is then marked upon every one with a pencil, and the stem still supported between centers, has every cup cut through these lines with a tenon saw, in a line with the axis and down to the central tapering rod. The major portion of every cup is then pared entirely away with a carpenter's chisel, until the space it occupied becomes a part of the central stem; the square sides of the narrow portions remaining, being finally finished to shape with the chisel and file.

Plain Turning Applied To Surface Ornamentation Par 400392

Plate XXI.