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Phantasms Of The Living | by Edmund Gurney, Frederic W. H. Myers, Frank Podmore



Phantasms of the Living, published in 1886, which embodies much of the early work of the Society for Psychical Research, and in particular much valuable discussion by its earliest honorary secretary, Edmund Gurney, has long been out of print. But as its value has been but little affected by subsequent investigations, and it still forms the basis on which much of the present-day work on telepathy, and especially on apparitions, rests, it is thought that a new edition is likely to be appreciated by the public. Had the authors been with us still, a new edition would no doubt have been brought up to date. New evidence would have been included, and the discussion might perhaps have been added to or diminished, to suit the new atmosphere which the book itself has helped to create. Changes of this sort I have not felt justified in attempting. The text is substantially as the authors left it with the exception of omissions for the sake of brevity in Chapters IV and XIII (indicated in their places), and no new cases have been introduced.

TitlePhantasms Of The Living
AuthorEdmund Gurney, Frederic W. H. Myers, Frank Podmore
PublisherKegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co., Ltd
Year1918
Copyright1918, Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co., Ltd
AmazonPhantasms of the Living

By Edmund Gurney, M. A., Late Fellow Of Trinity College, Cambridge,

Frederic W. H. Myers, M.A., Late Fellow Of Trinity College, Cambridge,

And Frank Podmore, M.A.,

Abridged Edition Prepared By Mrs. Henry Sidgwick

-Editor's Preface To The Present Abridged Edition
Phantasms of the Living, published in 1886, which embodies much of the early work of the Society for Psychical Research, and in particular much valuable discussion by its earliest honorary secretary, ...
-Preface To Original Edition
A large part of the material used in this book was sent to the authors as representatives of the Society for Psychical Research; and the book is published with the sanction of the Council of that Soci...
-Synopsis of Introduction
I 1. The title of this book embraces all transmissions of thought and feeling from one person to another, by other means than through the recognised channels of sense; and among these cases ...
-Synopsis of Chapter I. Preliminary Remarks: Grounds Of Caution
1. The great test of scientific achievement is often held to be the power to predict natural phenomena; but the test, though an authoritative one in the sciences of inorganic nature, has but a ...
-Synopsis of Chapter II. The Experimental Basis: Thought-Transference
1. The term thought-transference has been adopted in preference to thought-reading, the latter term (1) having become identified with exhibitions of muscle-reading, and (2) suggesting a power o...
-Synopsis of Chapter III. The Transition From Experimental To Spontaneous Telepathy
1. There is a certain class of cases in which, though they are experiments on the agent's part, and involve his conscious concentration of mind with a view to the result, the percipient is not ...
-Synopsis of Chapter IV. General Criticism Of The Evidence For Spontaneous Telepathy
1. When we pass to spontaneous exhibitions of telepathy, the nature of the evidence changes; for the events are described by persons who played their part in them unawares, without any idea tha...
-Chapter IV Synopsis. General Criticism Of The Evidence For Spontaneous Telepathy. Continued
10. As regards the interval of time which may separate the two events or experiences on the agent's and the percipient's side respectively, an arbitrary limit of 12 hours has been adopted - the...
-Synopsis of Chapter V. Specimens Of The Various Types Of Spontaneous Telepathy
1. As the study of any large amount of the evidence that follows is a task for which many readers will be disinclined, a selection of typical cases will be presented in this chapter, illustrati...
-Synopsis of Chapter VI. Transference Of Ideas And Mental Pictures
1. The popular belief in the transference of thought, without physical signs, between friends and members of the same household, is often held on quite insufficient grounds; allowance not being...
-Synopsis of Chapter VII. Emotional And Motor Effects
1. Emotional impressions, alleged to have coincided with some calamitous event at a distance, form a very dubious class, as (1) in retrospect, after the calamity is realised, they are apt to as...
-Synopsis of Chapter VIII. Dreams
Part 1. The Relation Of Dreams To The Argument For Telepathy 1. Dreams comprise the whole range of transition from ideal and emotional to sensory affections; and at every step of the transit...
-Synopsis of Chapter IX. "Borderland" Cases
1. The transition-states between sleeping and waking - or, more generally the seasons when a person is in bed, but not asleep - seem to be specially favourable to subjective hallucinations of t...
-Synopsis of Chapter X. Hallucinations: General Sketch
1. Telepathic phantasms of the externalised sort are a species belonging to the larger genus of hallucinations; and the genus requires some preliminary discussion ............ 286 Hallucinat...
-Synopsis of Chapter XI. Transient Hallucinations Of The Sane: Ambiguous Cases
1. Transient hallucinations of the sane (a department of mental phenomena hitherto but little studied) comprise two classes: (1) hallucinations of purely subjective origin; and (2) hallucinatio...
-Synopsis of Chapter XII. The Development Of Telepathic Hallucinations
1. There arc two very principal ways in which phantasms of telepathic origin often resemble purely subjective hallucinations: (1) gradualness of development; and (2) originality of form or cont...
-Synopsis of Chapter XIII. The Theory Of Chance-Coincidence
1. Assuming the substantial correctness of much of the evidence for phantasms which have markedly coincided with an event at a distance, how can it be known that these coincidences are not due ...
-Synopsis of Chapter XIV. Further Visual Cases Occurring To A Single Percipient
1. Visual hallucinations may present various degrees of apparent ex-ternalisation, beginning with what is scarcely more than a picture in the mind's eye, and ending with a percept which seems q...
-Synopsis of Chapter XV. Further Auditory Cases Occurring To A Single Percipient
1. Cases where the phantasm has been of a recognised voice - the words heard having been, certainly in some cases and possibly in others, those which the distant agent was uttering ....... 433-...
-Synopsis of Chapter XVI. Tactile Cases And Cases Affecting More Than One Of The Percipient's Senses
1. Purely subjective impressions of touch, of at all a distinct kind, arc rare; and when they occur, may often be accounted for as illusions due to an involuntary muscular twitch. It is not sur...
-Synopsis of Chapter XVII. Reciprocal Cases
1. It occasionally happens that at the time when A telepathically influences B, A on his side has an impression which strongly suggests that B has reciprocally influenced him. The best proof of...
-Synopsis of Chapter XVIII. Collective Cases
1. Phantasms which have affected the senses of more than one percipient, are a specially perplexing class. On the face of them, they suggest a real objective presence of the person seen or hear...
-Synopsis of Conclusion
1. The case for spontaneous telepathy, being essentially a cumulative one, hardly admits of being recapitulated in a brief and attractive form. Nothing but a detailed study of the evidence - du...
-Introduction
,
-Introduction. Part 2
There have been reasons, no doubt, for such an exclusion; and I am not asserting that either Free Trade or free inquiry is always and under all circumstances to be desired. But it is needful to point ...
-Introduction. Part 3
For, in truth, it is Biology above all other sciences which has profited by the doctrine of evolution. In evolution, - in the doctrine that the whole cosmical order is the outcome of a gradual develop...
-Introduction. Part 4
I am not here expressing either agreement or disagreement with this general view. I am merely pointing out that here is an opinion which, whether right or wrong, is formed as a result not of vagueness...
-Introduction. Part 5
8. From Biology we may pass, by an easy transition, to what is commonly known as Anthropology, - the comparative study of the different races of men in respect either of their physical characte...
-Introduction. Part 6
The occasional introduction of the word supernormal may perhaps be excused. For we find throughout the world's history a series of great events which, though differing widely in detail, have a cert...
-Introduction. Part 7
And this position we still maintain. This book, as will be seen, does not attempt to deal with the most exciting and popular topics which are included in our Society's general scheme. And we shall be ...
-Introduction. Part 8
11. shall leave this proposition expressed thus in its most abstract and general form. And I may add - it is a reflection which I must ask the reader to keep steadily in mind, - that any suppor...
-Introduction. Part 9
12. I have been speaking thus far of religion in its full sense, as a body of doctrine containing some kind of definite assurance as to an unseen world. But the form of religious thought which ...
-Introduction. Part 10
I need not here embark on the controversy as to how far this aspiration towards the things of the spirit is logically consistent with a creed that stops short with the things of sense. It is quite e...
-Introduction. Part 11
And here arises the pressing question - notoriously still undecided, difficult and complex beyond any anticipation - as to whether supernormal phenomena of this physical kind do in fact occur at all; ...
-Introduction. Part 12
And having been led to this choice by the nature of the actual evidence before us, we may recognise that there is some propriety in dealing first with an issue which, complex though it is, is yet simp...
-Introduction. Part 13
When, therefore, we are considering whether the phantasms of dying persons may most fitly be considered as phantasms of the dead or of the living, we find little support from analogy on the side of po...
-Introduction. Part 14
He will feel bound therefore to dwell on the points on which our knowledge either of telepathy, or of the mechanism of hallucinations in general, throw some light; and he will set aside as at present ...
-Introduction. Part 15
Furthermore, the whole subject of hallucinations of the sane - which hitherto has received very scanty treatment - seems fairly to belong to our subject, and has been treated by Mr. Gurney in Chapter ...
-Chapter I. Preliminary Remarks: Grounds Of Caution
1. Whatever the advances of science may do for the universe, there is one thing that they have never yet done and show no prospect of doing - namely, to make it less marvellous. Face to face wi...
-Preliminary Remarks: Grounds Of Caution. Part 2
Indeed it is in emphasising exceptions that his own role will largely consist. And above all must he beware of setting up any arbitrary scientific frontier between the part of Nature that he knows a...
-Preliminary Remarks: Grounds Of Caution. Part 3
4. The moral is one which the authors of the present undertaking have every reason to lay to heart. For the endeavour of this book, almost throughout, is to deal with themes that are in a sense...
-Chapter II. The Experimental Basis: Thought-Transference
1. It is difficult to get a quite satisfactory name for the experimental branch of our subject. Thought-reading was the name that we first adopted; but this had several inconveniences. Oddly...
-The Experimental Basis: Thought-Transference. Part 2
Some of the older cases referred to will be found quoted in extenso in the first chapter of the Supplement [not here reproduced]. Though recorded for the most part in a fragmentary and unsatisfactory ...
-The Experimental Basis: Thought-Transference. Part 3
But till this game was played, probably no one fully realised that muscular hints, so slight as to be quite unconsciously given, could be equally unconsciously taken; and that thus a definite course o...
-The Experimental Basis: Thought-Transference. Part 4
What more natural, therefore, than that those who saw the absurdity of these pretensions should regard further inquiry or suspension of judgment as a concession to ignorant credulity? Irving Bishop,...
-The Experimental Basis: Thought-Transference. Part 5
We may venture to say that a candid critic, present during the whole course of the experiments, would have carried away a far more vivid impression of their genuineness than any printed record can con...
-The Experimental Basis: Thought-Transference. Part 6
Strict silence was maintained throughout each experiment, and when the group of agents included any members of the Creery family, the closest watch was kept in order to detect any passage of signals; ...
-The Experimental Basis: Thought-Transference. Part 7
During the ensuing year, the Committee, consisting of Professor Barrett, Mr. Myers, and the present writer, made a number of experiments under similar conditions, which excluded contact and movement, ...
-The Experimental Basis: Thought-Transference. Part 8
Again, the correct answer was often given, as it were, piecemeal - in two partially incorrect guesses - the pips or picture being rightly given at the first attempt, and the suit at the second; and in...
-The Experimental Basis: Thought-Transference. Part 9
The Creerys had their most startling successes at first, when the affair was a surprise and an amusement, or later, at short and seemingly casual trials; the decline set in with their sense that the e...
-The Experimental Basis: Thought-Transference. Part 10
Clearly no definite conclusion could be based on such figures as the above. They at most contained a hint for more extended trials, but a hint, fortunately, which can be easily followed up. We are oft...
-The Experimental Basis: Thought-Transference. Part 11
And in fact some French trials of this type, and an aggregate of 5,500 carried out by the American Society for Psychical Research,1 give a result only very slightly in excess of the most probable numb...
-The Experimental Basis: Thought-Transference. Part 12
It is difficult to classify them. A great number of them are decided successes; another large number give part of the drawing; others exhibit the general idea, and others again manifest a kind of com...
-The Experimental Basis: Thought-Transference. Part 13
9. Soon after the publication of these results, Mr. Guthrie was fortunate enough to obtain the active co-operation of Dr. Oliver J. Lodge [now Sir Oliver Lodge], Professor of Physics in Univers...
-The Experimental Basis: Thought-Transference. Part 14
It is the delicate psychological conditions of which Professor Lodge here speaks that are in danger of being ignored, just because they cannot be measured and handled. The man who first hears of tho...
-The Experimental Basis: Thought-Transference. Part 15
These substances were enclosed in small bottles and small parcels, precisely similar to one another, and kept carefully out of the range of vision of the 'subjects,' who were, moreover, blindfolded, s...
-The Experimental Basis: Thought-Transference. Part 16
In later experiments, Mr. Guthrie endeavoured to meet the difficulty caused by odorous substances, and even succeeded in obtaining what appeared to be transferences of smell-impressions. The subject...
-The Experimental Basis: Thought-Transference. Part 17
The exactly corresponding spot on the left side was guessed. 19. - Back hair pulled. No result. 20. - Inside of right wrist pricked. Right foot guessed. Thus in 10 out of the 20 cases, the percipie...
-The Experimental Basis: Thought-Transference. Part 18
Here again we find the advantage of the generic word telepathy - for it would clearly be inaccurate to call a phenomenon thought-transference where what is transferred does not make its appearance...
-The Experimental Basis: Thought-Transference. Part 19
My object in quoting this large number of questions and replies [N.B. those here given are mere samples] has not been merely to show the instantaneous and unfailing transmission of thought from questi...
-The Experimental Basis: Thought-Transference. Part 20
182. Write out the prayer used at the advancement of a Mark Master Mason. A. Almighty Ruler of the Universe and Architect of all worlds, we beseech Thee to accept this, our brother, whom we have ...
-The Experimental Basis: Thought-Transference. Part 21
The philosophical problem of partial selves cannot be here enlarged on. For a discussion of the subject from the point of view of cerebral localisation, as well as for further quotations from Mr. Newn...
-The Experimental Basis: Thought-Transference. Part 22
Now, to the astonishment of all concerned, these letters, when arranged in a series, turned out to produce a more or less close approximation to the word of which F was thinking. For the sake of co...
-The Experimental Basis: Thought-Transference. Part 23
Summing up these four trials, the most probable number of exact successes was 0, and the actual number was 3; the most probable number of successes of the other type was 1 or at most 2; and the actual...
-The Experimental Basis: Thought-Transference. Part 24
The movement required to make the raps may have become semi-automatic from long habit, but can hardly have been unconscious. I may add that, out of a good many words and sentences which were spelt out...
-The Experimental Basis: Thought-Transference. Part 25
A number of words are latent in his mind; one of these finds an echo in another mind. But how should the idea of movement find out which particular one, out of all the words, is destined thus to find ...
-The Experimental Basis: Thought-Transference. Part 26
The following case, received in September, 1885, from Mrs. Wilson, of Westal, Cheltenham, is interesting as an apparent victory of thought-reading over muscle-reading. A group of five willers,...
-Chapter III. The Transition From Experimental To Spontaneous Telepathy
1. In all the cases of the action of one mind on another that were considered in the last chapter, both the parties concerned - percipient as well as agent - were consciously and voluntarily ta...
-The Transition From Experimental To Spontaneous Telepathy. Part 2
Cases of waking a hypnotic subject by the silent exercise of the will have been recorded by Reichenbach,1 and by the Committee appointed by the French Royal Academy of Medicine to investigate anima...
-The Transition From Experimental To Spontaneous Telepathy. Part 3
And here a word may be in place as to the relation of the will to telepathic experiments in general. That the will of the agent or operator is usually in active play, admits, of course, of no doubt; b...
-The Transition From Experimental To Spontaneous Telepathy. Part 4
4. I now turn to the second class of transitional cases; that where ideas and sensations unconnected with movement are excited, in a person who is not a conscious party to the experiment, by th...
-The Transition From Experimental To Spontaneous Telepathy. Part 5
6. The sensory cases to be found in the Zoist are a trifle less fragmentary than some that I have quoted, but depend again on the uncorroborated statement of a single observer. Mr. H. S. Thomps...
-The Transition From Experimental To Spontaneous Telepathy. Part 6
Still this is, of course, no complete explanation of the rarity of the phenomenon; for no definable line separates these rare attempts from the ordinary experiments in thought-transference, when the a...
-The Transition From Experimental To Spontaneous Telepathy. Part 7
We followed at once in order to discover whether there was any deception, but found nothing. The strangest thing was this, that our night watch of two men whom I had shortly before found on the watch ...
-The Transition From Experimental To Spontaneous Telepathy. Part 8
A few weeks later the experiment was repeated with equal success. I, as before, not informing Z when it was made. On this occasion he not only questioned me on the subject which was at that time unde...
-The Transition From Experimental To Spontaneous Telepathy. Part 9
The next case of Mr. S. H. B.'s is different in this respect, that the percipient was not consciously present to the agent's mind on the night that he made his attempt. The account is copied from the ...
-The Transition From Experimental To Spontaneous Telepathy. Part 10
The present writer requested Mr. B. to send him a note on the night that he intended to make his next experiment of the kind, and received the following note by the first post on Monday, March 24th, 1...
-The Transition From Experimental To Spontaneous Telepathy. Part 11
Undoubtedly the imaginative faculty was brought extensively into play, as well as the volitional; for I endeavoured to translate myself, spiritually, into the room, and to attract her attention, as i...
-The Transition From Experimental To Spontaneous Telepathy. Part 12
We requested Mr. Godfrey to make another trial, without of course giving Mrs. - any reason to expect that he would do so. He made a trial at once, thinking that we wanted the result immediately, thoug...
-The Transition From Experimental To Spontaneous Telepathy. Part 13
In a thought-transference experiment of the normal type, the percipient's image or idea of a card or diagram is due (as we hold) to the fact that the agent has been directing his attention to that ...
-Chapter IV. General Criticism Of The Evidence For Spontaneous Telepathy
1. We have now to quit the experimental branch of our subject. We have been engaged, so far, with cases of thought-transference deliberately sought for and observed within the four walls of a r...
-General Criticism Of The Evidence For Spontaneous Telepathy. Part 2
This ignorance took effect in the following way - that every piece of evidence to marvellous facts was perforce regarded as presenting one simple alternative: - either the facts happened as alleged; o...
-General Criticism Of The Evidence For Spontaneous Telepathy. Part 3
The above seems a sufficient explanation of the testimony which to the eyes of contemporaries appeared the strongest - the testimony of possessed persons, and of the professed participators in the i...
-General Criticism Of The Evidence For Spontaneous Telepathy. Part 4
One further criticism may be made as to the mental condition of those who were in any direct sense witnesses to the facts. They were invariably persons inclined to such beliefs to begin with - who had...
-General Criticism Of The Evidence For Spontaneous Telepathy. Part 5
But though numerous, the instances are sporadic; they appear as isolated marvels, which even those who experienced them regarded as such, and not as evidences to any widely-believed reality. So much i...
-General Criticism Of The Evidence For Spontaneous Telepathy. Part 6
This mode of regarding them (and the reservations with which the word subjective must be used) will be fully explained in the sequel. It is enough for the present to note that the witness who would...
-General Criticism Of The Evidence For Spontaneous Telepathy. Part 7
Still, the desire, as a rule, is actually to see the eyes opening; and the danger is therefore greater in the case of a story which is told off-hand and viva voce for the sake of immediate effect, tha...
-General Criticism Of The Evidence For Spontaneous Telepathy. Part 8
But apart from any bias of an emotional or speculative sort, we must certainly admit a general tendency in the human mind to make any picture of facts definite. To many people vagueness of emotion or ...
-General Criticism Of The Evidence For Spontaneous Telepathy. Part 9
8. Taking the above four items in order, the first of them - the state of the agent - is the one where the risk is smallest. To take the commonest case, the very fact, death, which makes it imp...
-General Criticism Of The Evidence For Spontaneous Telepathy. Part 10
9. Cases of this type are of course, as a class, less satisfactory. It is here that some of the recognised tendencies to error - the impulse to make vague things definite, and the impulse to ma...
-General Criticism Of The Evidence For Spontaneous Telepathy. Part 11
But here the reader may fairly ask where the line of error is to be drawn. Must the coincidence be exact to the moment? And, if not, what degree of inexactness may be permitted before we cease to rega...
-General Criticism Of The Evidence For Spontaneous Telepathy. Part 12
It does not occur to him that this account of the matter is in itself harder to accept than the fact of a subjective auditory hallucination. To realise this would require a certain amount of definite ...
-General Criticism Of The Evidence For Spontaneous Telepathy. Part 13
13. But, on the whole, the danger that the closeness of the coincidence may be exaggerated depends rather on misstatement of the date of the percipient's than of the agent's share in the allege...
-General Criticism Of The Evidence For Spontaneous Telepathy. Part 14
14. We see, then, that cases where the alleged correspondence of facts and coincidence of dates are sufficiently close to afford a prima facie presumption of telepathic action may present very ...
-General Criticism Of The Evidence For Spontaneous Telepathy. Part 15
Here I may close this preliminary survey of the possibilities of error which must be constantly kept in view in the investigation of alleged telepathic cases, and which must be either excluded by evid...
-General Criticism Of The Evidence For Spontaneous Telepathy. Part 16
Each case must be judged on its merits, by reference to a considerable number of points; and, as far as written testimony goes, the reader will have the same opportunities as we have had for forming a...
-General Criticism Of The Evidence For Spontaneous Telepathy. Part 17
Not only have we to assume such an extent of forgetfulness and inaccuracy, about simple and striking facts of the immediate past, as is totally unexampled in any other range of experience. Not only ha...
-General Criticism Of The Evidence For Spontaneous Telepathy. Part 18
We find in it none of the familiar features of myth or of untrained fancy; the reports have not given wings to a quadruped, or horns and hoofs to a carnivor; they contradict nothing that is known. Can...
-General Criticism Of The Evidence For Spontaneous Telepathy. Part 19
Even minor points may detract from the businesslike look of the work. Informants whose evidence is otherwise satisfactory sometimes feel it a sort of mysterious duty to throw a veil over something - i...
-Chapter V. Specimens Of The Various Types Of Spontaneous Telepathy
1. We now come to the actual evidence for spontaneous telepathy. As has been explained, the proof is cumulative, and its strength can only be truly estimated by a patient study of a very large ...
-Specimens Of The Various Types Of Spontaneous Telepathy. Part 2
2. Now the logical starting-point for the following inquiry will naturally be found in the cases which present most analogy to the results of experimental thought-transference. All those result...
-Specimens Of The Various Types Of Spontaneous Telepathy. Part 3
(18) In March, 1861, I was living at Houghton, Hants. My wife was at the time confined to the house, by delicacy of the lungs. One day, walking through a lane, I found the first wild violets of the s...
-Specimens Of The Various Types Of Spontaneous Telepathy. Part 4
3. We may now pass to illustrations of Class B - the class of ideal and emotional impressions. The following is a well-attested case of the transference of an idea. It was sent to us, in 1884, ...
-Specimens Of The Various Types Of Spontaneous Telepathy. Part 5
(20) When I was a child I had many remarkable experiences of a psychical nature, which I remember to have looked upon as ordinary and natural at the time. On one occasion (I am unable to fix the ...
-Specimens Of The Various Types Of Spontaneous Telepathy. Part 6
(21) My wife went to reside at the seaside on September 30th last, taking with her our youngest child, a little boy 13 months old. On Wednesday, October 3rd, I felt a strong impression that the l...
-Specimens Of The Various Types Of Spontaneous Telepathy. Part 7
(22) On March 16th, 1884, I was sitting alone in the drawing-room, reading an interesting book, and feeling perfectly well, when suddenly I experienced an undefined feeling of dread and horror; I loo...
-Specimens Of The Various Types Of Spontaneous Telepathy. Part 8
4. The next case illustrates the class of dreams (D). I am aware that the very mention of this class is apt to raise a prejudice against our whole inquiry. I shall explain later why it is extre...
-Specimens Of The Various Types Of Spontaneous Telepathy. Part 9
(24) My father and brother were on a journey during the winter. I was expecting them home, without knowing the exact day of their return. The date, to the best of my recollection, was the winter of 1...
-Specimens Of The Various Types Of Spontaneous Telepathy. Part 10
5. We now come to an example of the borderland class (E) - the class where the percipient, though not asleep, was not, or cannot be proved to have been, in a state of complete normal wakefuln...
-Specimens Of The Various Types Of Spontaneous Telepathy. Part 11
(26) About 2 o'clock on the morning of October 21st, 1881, while I was perfectly wide awake, and looking at a lamp burning on my washhandstand, a person, as I thought, came into my room by mistake, a...
-Specimens Of The Various Types Of Spontaneous Telepathy. Part 12
(27) I was dressing one morning in December, 1881, when a certain conviction came upon me that someone was in my dressing-room. On looking round, I saw no one, but then, instantaneously (in my mind's...
-Specimens Of The Various Types Of Spontaneous Telepathy. Part 13
(28) N. J. S. and F. L. were employed together in an office, were brought into intimate relations with one another, which lasted for about eight years, and held one another in very great regard and e...
-Specimens Of The Various Types Of Spontaneous Telepathy. Part 14
(29) My late parishioner, Mrs. de Freville, was a somewhat eccentric lady, who was specially morbid on the subject of tombs, etc. About two days after her death, which took place in London, May 8...
-Specimens Of The Various Types Of Spontaneous Telepathy. Part 15
(30) Helen Alexander (maid to Lady Waldegrave) was lying here very ill with typhoid fever, and was attended by me. I was standing at the table by her bedside, pouring out her medicine, at about 4 o'c...
-Specimens Of The Various Types Of Spontaneous Telepathy. Part 16
(31) I called to-day on Mrs. Browne, and saw (1) a document in the handwriting of her mother, Mrs. Carslake (now dead), which purported to be a copy of a memorandum made by Mrs. Browne's father, the ...
-Specimens Of The Various Types Of Spontaneous Telepathy. Part 17
(32) On December 18th, 1873, I left my house in Lincolnshire to visit my wife's parents, then and now residing in Lord Street, Southport. Both my parents were, to all appearance, in good health when ...
-Specimens Of The Various Types Of Spontaneous Telepathy. Part 18
7. So much for visual examples. I will now give an illustration of externalised impressions of the auditory sort. The case differs in another respect from the foregoing visual examples; for tho...
-Specimens Of The Various Types Of Spontaneous Telepathy. Part 19
(34) In 1876, I was living in a small agricultural parish in the East of England, one of my neighbours at the time being a young man, S. B.,1 who had recently come into the occupation of a large farm...
-Specimens Of The Various Types Of Spontaneous Telepathy. Part 20
8. Telepathic impressions of the sense of touch are naturally hard to establish, unless some other sense is also affected. In the cases in our collection, at all events, a mere impression of to...
-Specimens Of The Various Types Of Spontaneous Telepathy. Part 21
9. Finally,the class of collective percipience (G) may be illustrated by an instance which (since visual cases have preponderated in this chapter) I will again select from the auditory group. I...
-Specimens Of The Various Types Of Spontaneous Telepathy. Part 22
10. The above may serve as examples of the several groups classified with reference to the nature of the percipient's impression. But it will be seen that the agent has also been exhibited in a...
-Chapter VI. Transference Of Ideas And Of Mental Pictures
1. The advance-guard of cases in the last chapter has afforded a glance at the whole range of the phenomena. But I must now start on a methodical plan, and take the narratives in groups accordi...
-Transference Of Ideas And Of Mental Pictures. Part 2
(37) Colonel Lyttleton Annesley, Commanding Officer of the nth Hussars, was staying in my house some time ago, and one afternoon, having nothing to do, we wandered into a large unoccupied room, given...
-Transference Of Ideas And Of Mental Pictures. Part 3
2. [Omitted also are four examples - 40, 41, 42, 43 - illustrating the transference of ideas and images of a simple rudimentary sort. Perhaps the following case from the Additional Chapter m...
-Transference Of Ideas And Of Mental Pictures. Part 4
3. I now come to cases where the impression was of a more definite sort, representing actual people and actual events. We sometimes encounter persons who allege that they have repeatedly experi...
-Transference Of Ideas And Of Mental Pictures. Part 5
(49) In the fall of 1875, I took a trip to Madison, Ohio, to Johnson's Island, Kelly's Island, and neighbouring points. There were nine of us in all, and our conveyance was a small sailing vessel. On...
-Transference Of Ideas And Of Mental Pictures. Part 6
4. There is one interesting group of cases where the idea apparently impressed on the percipient has been simply that of the agent's approach. But here, again, great caution is necessary. Popul...
-Transference Of Ideas And Of Mental Pictures. Part 7
5. So far, the impressions that corresponded with real events have all been ideas of a more or less abstract kind; the fact was realised, but no image of the actual scene was called up in the p...
-Transference Of Ideas And Of Mental Pictures. Part 8
(62) Some years ago, the writer, when recovering from an illness, had a remarkable experience of ' second-sight.' It was thus: - A friend had been invited to dinner, whom the writer was most anx...
-Transference Of Ideas And Of Mental Pictures. Part 9
(65) I had known Mr. ------as a medical man, under whose treatment I had been for some years, and at whose hands I had experienced great kindness. He had ceased to attend me for considerably more tha...
-Chapter VII. Emotional And Motor Effects
1. We come next to a class of cases which are characterised not so much by the distinctness of the idea as by the strength of the emotion produced in the percipient. In some of these the emotio...
-Emotional And Motor Effects. Part 2
2. [Three cases - 67, 68, 69 - are here omitted]. In the next example there can be no doubt as to the striking nature of the percipient's experience; which, indeed, was so distinctly physica...
-Emotional And Motor Effects. Part 3
(73) On the 3rd of May in the same spring [1882], my wife, while taking tea with my daughter, was suddenly seized with an epileptic fit, and fell heavily to the floor, striking her forehead on the f...
-Emotional And Motor Effects. Part 4
3. On the supposition that a close natural bond between two persons is a favourable condition for telepathic influence, there is one group of persons among whom we might expect to find a dispro...
-Emotional And Motor Effects. Part 5
4. We may now pass to a group of these cases in which the primary element of the emotional impression is a sense of being wanted - an impulse to go somewhere or do something. The first examp...
-Emotional And Motor Effects. Part 6
(81) I respectfully beg to offer you a short statement of my experience on a subject which I do not understand. Let me premise that I am not a scholar, as I left school when 12 years of age in 1827, ...
-Emotional And Motor Effects. Part 7
(86) There was a Calvinistic Methodist minister, named Thomas Howell, Kinffig Hill, near Bridgend. He was preaching at Pen-y-graig, and resided not far from my house. I was disturbed in my mind about...
-Emotional And Motor Effects. Part 8
(87) Je m'empresse de vous ecrire au sujet du fait de communication de pensee dont je vous ai parle, lorsque vous m'avez fait l'honneur d'assis-ter a mes seances hypnotiques a Nancy. Ce fait se pass...
-Chapter VIII. Dreams. Part I. The Relation Of Dreams To The Argument For Telepathy
I. The inward impressions of distant events with which I have so far dealt have all been waking impressions. They have visited the percipient in the midst of his daily employments, and have oft...
-The Relation Of Dreams To The Argument For Telepathy. Part 2
2. But though dreams thus present a logical point of departure, they also form in many ways the most assailable part of our case. They are placed almost in a separate category by their intimate...
-The Relation Of Dreams To The Argument For Telepathy. Part 3
3. The points to be considered have to do both with the intensity and with the content of the dream; let us consider them in order. First as to intensity. An exceedingly small proportion of ...
-The Relation Of Dreams To The Argument For Telepathy. Part 4
4. But the fact that a singular and marked event, such as death, is in so large a proportion of cases the central feature of the true dreams, supplies more than a general argument; it supplie...
-The Relation Of Dreams To The Argument For Telepathy. Part 5
The estimate from the above data is as follows. The probability that a person, taken at random, will have a vivid dream of death in the course of 12 years is 1/26; the probability that any assigned me...
-The Relation Of Dreams To The Argument For Telepathy. Part 6
5. As pointed out above, it is only where the coincident dream exhibits some sort of unique event, such as death, that we can obtain the statistical basis necessary for an arithmetical estimate...
-Dreams. Part II. Examples Of Dreams Which May Be Reasonably Regarded As Telepathic
1. On surveying a large number of cases where a dream has corresponded in time with the real occurrence of the event or events which it represented, in such a way as strongly to suggest that it...
-Examples Of Dreams Which May Be Reasonably Regarded As Telepathic. Part 2
(94) On June 10th, 1883, I had the following dream. Someone told me that Miss Elliott was dead. I instantly, in my dream, rushed to her room, entered it, went to her bedside and pulled the clothes fr...
-Examples Of Dreams Which May Be Reasonably Regarded As Telepathic. Part 3
2. Passing now to examples where the supposed agent was awake, but in a perfectly ordinary and unexcited state, we must still, of course, reject cases where any normal cause for the dream can b...
-Examples Of Dreams Which May Be Reasonably Regarded As Telepathic. Part 4
(691) In December, 1881, my husband was slowly recovering from a severe illness; and one afternoon, about 5 o'clock, I went into his study, where he had gone for 2 or 3 hours, to see if he wanted any...
-Examples Of Dreams Which May Be Reasonably Regarded As Telepathic. Part 5
3. We come now to cases where the agent's mind was in a more or less disturbed state. [Case 97 omitted]. The evidential force of the following case is not easy to estimate, without knowing h...
-Examples Of Dreams Which May Be Reasonably Regarded As Telepathic. Part 6
4. We come now to the larger family of cases, in which the agent's personality, and not merely his particular thought, is reflected, and the dream conveys a true impression of his state, or of ...
-Examples Of Dreams Which May Be Reasonably Regarded As Telepathic. Part 7
Perils by sea are another very common subject of dreams; and where a large number of people are living a life of more than average risk, and a large number of relatives on land are living under a more...
-Examples Of Dreams Which May Be Reasonably Regarded As Telepathic. Part 8
5. In the following group the reality is not only presented in a pictorial way, but the dream-scene corresponds (in whole or in part) with what the eyes of the supposed agent are actually behol...
-Examples Of Dreams Which May Be Reasonably Regarded As Telepathic. Part 9
6. It will be useful at this juncture to recall the more familiar ways in which dreams are shaped. We all know that physical disturbances - whether of sound, or light, or cold, or touch - will ...
-Examples Of Dreams Which May Be Reasonably Regarded As Telepathic. Part 10
(115) I some time ago had rather a remarkable vision, but it was of the living. I have an only son, about 20, always in robust health, then in lodgings in London. Never were mother and son more to on...
-Examples Of Dreams Which May Be Reasonably Regarded As Telepathic. Part 11
(116) Towards morning of the 10th January, 1885, I was conscious of a young woman standing by my bedside clad in a grey dressing-gown, holding in her arms, towards me, a child. The woman was weeping...
-Examples Of Dreams Which May Be Reasonably Regarded As Telepathic. Part 12
(126) In September, 1879, I was in B - s, and laid up with a rather sharp attack of fever, kept to my room, and seeing no one. In the middle of one night I was awoke, as was my husband also, by a mos...
-Examples Of Dreams Which May Be Reasonably Regarded As Telepathic. Part 13
(127) A friend of mine, Mr. Adams, was seriously ill, and we were expecting his death. I had a dream that I saw the corpse of his wife laid out upon a bed, though we had no reason to suppose that she...
-Examples Of Dreams Which May Be Reasonably Regarded As Telepathic. Part 14
(131) The dream which I am about to relate occurred about 2 years ago. I seemed to be walking in a country road, with high grassy banks on either side. Suddenly I heard the tramp of many feet. Feelin...
-Examples Of Dreams Which May Be Reasonably Regarded As Telepathic. Part 15
8. I pass now to the final class of cases, where the dreamer seems, as it were, to be transported to the actual scene of the event. These cases, like the final cases of the 6th chapter, cannot ...
-Examples Of Dreams Which May Be Reasonably Regarded As Telepathic. Part 16
(134) On the evening of the 18th July, I felt unusually nervous. This seemed to begin [with the occurrence of a small domestic annoyance] about half-past 8 o'clock. When I went to my room I even felt...
-Examples Of Dreams Which May Be Reasonably Regarded As Telepathic. Part 17
(135) I have just, or rather a month ago, had a very unpleasant accident which has fortunately turned out all right and has given me the pleasure of forwarding to you a very complete and unmistakable...
-Examples Of Dreams Which May Be Reasonably Regarded As Telepathic. Part 18
(138) The writer is a very worthy wife of a shopkeeper at home, who told me the occurrence some years ago, then with more detail, as it was fresh in her memory; and her husband can vouch for the fact...
-Chapter IX. "Borderland" Cases
1. In the cases of the last chapter, the percipient, at the moment of percipience, was distinctly asleep. But the passage from sleep to waking admits of many degrees; and a very interesting gro...
-"Borderland" Cases. Part 2
They did not visit persons who were familiar with such visions as sleep approached; nor did they originate or develop in any way that suggests an unusual or fatigued condition of the retina. Nor again...
-"Borderland" Cases. Part 3
This unique character is, no doubt, as we have seen, often asserted of dreams proper which afterwards prove to have coincided with reality. But there we lacked complete assurance that similar dreams w...
-"Borderland" Cases. Part 4
This vision produced such a shock that I had no inclination to talk about it or to speak about it even to Stuart; but the impression it made upon me was too vivid to be easily forgotten; and so stron...
-"Borderland" Cases. Part 5
4. [Passing to definitely sensory cases, Mr. Gurney first quotes one (149) which, as he says, is interesting as a perfect example of an illusion hypnagogique, suggested apparently by the idea...
-"Borderland" Cases. Part 6
(154) In the autumn of 1873 my cousin Harry, to whom I was engaged, suddenly came to spend a few days with my family, then staying in London. We made* a bet for some gloves at parting. After paying s...
-"Borderland" Cases. Part 7
(157) I was deeply interested in the account of our mother's last illness, and was particularly struck by the circumstance of my name being called, because I heard it. I am not accustomed to dream, a...
-"Borderland" Cases. Part 8
(158) On the 18th of Oct., 1881, I was awakened by hearing myself called twice by an old servant, who was ill in an infirmary in Chelsea. I then heard 'Reggy' (one of the young gentlemen of the hous...
-"Borderland" Cases. Part 9
(168) On November 18th, 1863, I was living near Adelaide, and not long recovered from a severe illness at the birth of an infant, who was then 5 months old. My husband had also suffered from neuralgi...
-"Borderland" Cases. Part 10
(697) There can be no doubt whatever that there is some transmission for which no explanation has yet been given by the savants. I am a practical business man, and look upon all theories of Spiri...
-"Borderland" Cases. Part 11
(172) My son has shown me the paper signed by our housekeeper, Mrs. Elizabeth Duthie, and has told me of your desire to be assured of her reliability. Mrs. Duthie has been with me for more than 30 ye...
-"Borderland" Cases. Part 12
(174) An attack of rheumatism and nervous prostration left me far from well for some weeks last spring, and one night I had a strange unaccountable vision which has left a vivid impression upon my me...
-"Borderland" Cases. Part 13
6. I will now give some examples where two senses were concerned. [Six cases, 176-181, follow in which one of the two senses was the sense of touch. These are omitted except 180]. The follow...
-"Borderland" Cases. Part 14
7. Lastly, we have a group where the two higher senses of sight and hearing were both concerned. The following account is from Miss Kate Jenour, of 23, Belsize Square, South Hampstead, N.W. ...
-"Borderland" Cases. Part 15
The next case was received towards the end of 1882, from Mr. J. G. Keulemans, who has already been mentioned more than once (pp. 140, 175, 183). (184) In December, 1880, he was living with his fami...
-"Borderland" Cases. Part 16
(185) On the 4th of July, 1868, my sister Lizzie and myself left Detroit and went to Saginaw, for the purpose of making a short visit with friends there. Our train was due in Saginaw about 7 p.m., bu...
-"Borderland" Cases. Part 17
(702) I have been requested to give an account of an odd coincidence which occurred some three years since. (I am no believer in spirits, and believe the following was the result of illness.) I was i...
-"Borderland" Cases. Part 18
(190) In giving the following experience. I may premise that as a child, and since, I have comparatively had but little knowledge (as a personal experience) of fear; and in the existence of ghosts I ...
-"Borderland" Cases. Part 19
The visit did good, however, for I got up and went out with her, and I can only say that the impression my manner and words made upon her was so deep that, the moment she arrived home, she sat down an...
-Chapter X. Hallucinations: General Sketch
1. We are now approaching the most important division of our subject. So far the impressions, possibly or probably telepathic, that we have considered, have been (1) the non-externalised sort (...
-Hallucinations: General Sketch. Part 2
To adopt it here would drive us to describe the diseased Nicolai - when he saw phantoms in the room, but had his mind specially directed to the fact that they were internally caused - as less hallucin...
-Hallucinations: General Sketch. Part 3
2. It was, of course, evident from the first that there was a certain duality of nature in hallucinations. In popular language, the mind and the sense were both plainly involved; the hallucinat...
-Hallucinations: General Sketch. Part 4
3. In its first form, the question is one between central and peripheral origin. Do hallucinations originate in the brain - in the central mechanism of perception? or in some immediate conditio...
-Hallucinations: General Sketch. Part 5
Passing him this, we may say that his treatment of the question entitles him to the credit of the second great discovery about hallucinations. He had already made clear their genuinely sensory quality...
-Hallucinations: General Sketch. Part 6
4. But we may now proceed a step further. The excitation may be external not only in the sense of coming from the external organ, but in the sense of coming from the external world. It may be d...
-Hallucinations: General Sketch. Part 7
5. But in any case, imaginary objects which are projected on a convenient flat surface form a very outlying class. For the common run of visual hallucinations, even of those seen in good light,...
-Hallucinations: General Sketch. Part 8
We find, however, our clearest examples of the central initiation of hallucinations, when we turn to cases where excitation from the outer world is plainly absent. This class includes phantasms seen i...
-Hallucinations: General Sketch. Part 9
But wherever the hallucination can be gradually traced in its development from more rudimentary sensations, these last seem to be very distinct and exceptional things, unknown in ordinary experience. ...
-Hallucinations: General Sketch. Part 10
The auditory cases are even plainer. For here the hypothesis of points de repere seems quite out of the question. It has never been observed that the hallucinations occur when the attention is being f...
-Hallucinations: General Sketch. Part 11
A further argument for the central initiation of many hallucinations of the distinctly morbid sort may be drawn from the course which the morbid process takes. The first stage is often not a sensory h...
-Hallucinations: General Sketch. Part 12
Banishment was very easy; it only needed a relaxed tension. And I may add that in one of the cases equally the origin of a large number of the undoubted psycho-sensorial hallucinations, I cannot reco...
-Hallucinations: General Sketch. Part 13
The Rev. P. H. Newnham, of Maker Vicarage, Devonport, already so often mentioned, has supplied me with some examples which are eminently in point. He has had on several occasions psychic hallucinati...
-Hallucinations: General Sketch. Part 14
I did not even remember there was a bolt to the door, for I recollect just for a moment thinking I must and would go, and then such a strange feeling of mysterious peril that I wondered how I should s...
-Hallucinations: General Sketch. Part 15
7. The general conclusion from the foregoing paragraphs is plain - that hallucinations of the senses may be spontaneously initiated by the brain; that they are often a pure projection of the br...
-Hallucinations: General Sketch. Part 16
But there is another view. I have noted four ways in which the machinery may be set in motion; but there is a fifth possible way. The excitation may come downwards from C - from the seats of ideation ...
-Hallucinations: General Sketch. Part 17
For simple and recurrent forms of hallucination, much may be said in favour of the lower origin. It is in accordance with all that we know or conjecture as to nerve-tissue, that certain cell-modificat...
-Hallucinations: General Sketch. Part 18
Another correspondent saw a spectral figure enter his room and stand at the foot of his bed. Of course I put my head under the bed-clothes, and yet I saw it. It seems so unlikely that the imaginatio...
-Hallucinations: General Sketch. Part 19
On April 14th, being down in the village where she lives, she called on me in my class-room, and begged me to come and see her, as she had something particular to tell me. On my going to see her, she...
-Hallucinations: General Sketch. Part 20
10. I have throughout tried to express what I have called the centrifugal theory in such terms that it might be accepted even by those who locate the sensory centres themselves not below, but i...
-Chapter XI. Transient Hallucinations Of The Sane: Ambiguous Cases
1. We have briefly surveyed hallucinations in their more general aspects. But before concentrating our view exclusively on the peculiar telepathic species, we shall do well to pause for a littl...
-Transient Hallucinations Of The Sane: Ambiguous Cases. Part 2
Now at first sight this seems strange, inasmuch as many percipients have been in quite as intimate connection with other persons as with the agent of their one phantasmal visitation; and some of the...
-Transient Hallucinations Of The Sane: Ambiguous Cases. Part 3
They both said they had seen no one. ' Why, you don't mean to say I have not been in the house?' I said. ' Oh, yes; you were in the midst of saying something about the alterations, when you suddenly s...
-Transient Hallucinations Of The Sane: Ambiguous Cases. Part 4
Under the same head may fairly be reckoned such cases as Mr. A. Wedgwood's (p. 316, note), where the phantasmal object, though not reproducing anything that had recently been before the eyes, was the ...
-Transient Hallucinations Of The Sane: Ambiguous Cases. Part 5
The recognised phantasms have, moreover, usually represented persons whom the percipient was habitually seeing in real life - often a relative or a servant living in the same house - so that the delus...
-Transient Hallucinations Of The Sane: Ambiguous Cases. Part 6
5. First, then, as to anxiety. A person who has been brooding over the state of some absent friend or relative suddenly has a hallucination which suggests that person's presence. Now suppose th...
-Transient Hallucinations Of The Sane: Ambiguous Cases. Part 7
6. The next predisposing condition of hallucinations that we have to consider is awe, in that special form which is connected with the near sense of death, and with which elements of grief and ...
-Transient Hallucinations Of The Sane: Ambiguous Cases. Part 8
7. The remaining head that we have to consider is expectancy. The evidence as to the power of this condition of mind to produce waking hallucinations is rather more definite than in the case of...
-Transient Hallucinations Of The Sane: Ambiguous Cases. Part 9
The auditory examples are commoner and clearer. As might be expected, they are specially connected with sounds which occur in an isolated way, such as those of bells and clocks. Thus a lady tells me t...
-Transient Hallucinations Of The Sane: Ambiguous Cases. Part 10
In the parallel visual cases, the impression is, at any rate, often of the most distinctive and unmistakable kind; and it is impossible not to be struck by the number of instances in which this startl...
-Chapter XII. The Development Of Telepathic Hallucinations
1. The main points which I shall illustrate in the present chapter are two: (1) the gradual development of many telepathic hallucinations; and (2) the frequent embodiment of the idea which is a...
-The Development Of Telepathic Hallucinations. Part 2
2. And first very briefly to exhibit these types among purely subjective experiences - the following case, which most of my readers will probably refer to that class, is one where the phantasm ...
-The Development Of Telepathic Hallucinations. Part 3
3. I turn now to the telepathic cases. The most striking case of delayed recognition in our collection is perhaps that of Mr. Marchant (No. 26, p. 149). A case where the phantasmal figure was t...
-The Development Of Telepathic Hallucinations. Part 4
(194) Years ago, a friend and myself made the time-worn arrangement that whichever died first would endeavour to return to visit the other. Some years after, I asked this man's sister to remember me ...
-The Development Of Telepathic Hallucinations. Part 5
(195) I was on a visit at Colnbrook, in Buckinghamshire, in 1878, and one night when I went to bed, and while yet fully awake, I felt an influence as if some one was in the room. I sat up to see what...
-The Development Of Telepathic Hallucinations. Part 6
[Mr. Gurney subsequently obtained contemporary documentary evidence which he published in the Proceedings of the American Society for Psychical Research in 1887 (vol. i., p. 173) in reply to criticism...
-The Development Of Telepathic Hallucinations. Part 7
4. So much, then, for gradual development. I proceed to my second main point - the embodiment of the idea which is at the root of the hallucination in a manner that is to some extent original, ...
-The Development Of Telepathic Hallucinations. Part 8
5. And now to turn to the parallel features of original or fantastic construction in the telepathic class of hallucinations. The question as to the existence and interpretation of these feature...
-The Development Of Telepathic Hallucinations. Part 9
6. This frequent activity of the percipient's mind in the elaboration and projection of his percept forms a ready key to much of the evidence that follows. How, for instance, on any theory of m...
-The Development Of Telepathic Hallucinations. Part 10
We learn from Mr. J. Wilson Black, house-surgeon at the Northern Infirmary, Inverness, who has kindly referred to the books, that Archibald Ramsay was admitted to that institution on Feb. 24, 1875, su...
-The Development Of Telepathic Hallucinations. Part 11
Two or three days afterwards, I asked the landlady to get me a daily paper, feeling a longing to read something; and, at my landlady's urgent entreaty not to tire myself, I said that I would only loo...
-The Development Of Telepathic Hallucinations. Part 12
7. The examination of these precise points may lead us on to more general ground. If we admit a power in the percipient to evolve a waking dream from the nucleus of a transferred impression, ...
-The Development Of Telepathic Hallucinations. Part 13
(205) In March, 1869, while we were at Malvern Wells, an event occurred, which the reader will, of course, take for what he thinks it is worth but which I cannot see my way to explain as a coinciden...
-The Development Of Telepathic Hallucinations. Part 14
(206) In 1845 I was stationed with my regiment at Moulmein, in Burmah. In those days there was no direct mail, and we were dependent upon the arrival of sailing vessels for our letters, which sometim...
-The Development Of Telepathic Hallucinations. Part 15
(208) This family story fell within my own recollection, and I can vouch for the accuracy of the facts. The dates put it beyond any question of being imagined after the circumstances had occurred. ...
-The Development Of Telepathic Hallucinations. Part 16
8. To return, however, to the details of the phantasmal appearance - the theory which I have advanced as to the projection of the percept has received illustration in cases where all its featur...
-The Development Of Telepathic Hallucinations. Part 17
(213) When I lived in Bishopsgate, my rooms were at Salvador House. It was a grand old house. Formerly the home of a Spanish Ambassador, it had undergone strange vicissitudes. . . . My apartments con...
-The Development Of Telepathic Hallucinations. Part 18
(215) It was in the brightest moonlight, about full moon, I should think, with hardly a cloud in the sky; yet there was a thick white haze overhanging the fields. After walking a little distance I fo...
-The Development Of Telepathic Hallucinations. Part 19
Sufficient illustrations have now been given of the two types of case, where special features of dress and aspect may lead us pretty confidently to refer the detailed form which the hallucination take...
-The Development Of Telepathic Hallucinations. Part 20
9. Before quitting the subject of the development of telepathic phantasms, I may be allowed to point out its relation to the physiological sketch at the close of the tenth chapter; for it happe...
-The Development Of Telepathic Hallucinations. Part 21
10. The parallelism between telepathic and purely subjective hallucinations has now been traced out in the most essential particulars. To the five heads of resemblance enumerated in the last ch...
-Chapter XIII. The Theory Of Chance-Coincidence
1. An issue has now to be seriously considered which I have several times referred to as a fundamental one, but which could not be treated without a preliminary study of the subject of sensory ...
-The Theory Of Chance-Coincidence. Part 2
2. It is clear that the points to be settled are two: - the frequency of the phantasms which have markedly corresponded with real events; and the frequency of phantasms which have had no such c...
-The Theory Of Chance-Coincidence. Part 3
3. Perhaps the neglect of statistics has in part been due to an apparent hopelessness of attaining a sufficient quantity of reliable facts on which to found an argument - to an idea that any ce...
-The Theory Of Chance-Coincidence. Part 4
4. If I have dwelt thus on difficulties and misconceptions, it is not that I may boast of having altogether triumphed over them. On the contrary, they have made it impossible to attain more tha...
-The Theory Of Chance-Coincidence. Part 5
5. To say, however, that the answers came in the main from an educated class, is not, of course, a guarantee of the accuracy of the census; and before giving the actual results it may be well t...
-The Theory Of Chance-Coincidence. Part 6
6. And now to proceed to the actual results of the census, and to the calculations based thereon. [I omit Gurney's calculation for auditory cases. Turning to visual ones, he says: - Ed.] The re...
-The Theory Of Chance-Coincidence. Part 7
7. In the above estimates, I have allowed to the so-called coincidence the rather wide limit of 12 hours. But in most of the actual cases it has been much closer than this; and it will be worth...
-The Theory Of Chance-Coincidence. Part 8
And though this belief may have been rash and premature before the necessary statistics had been obtained, I have tried in the last section to show that it may now be justified by precise calculation....
-The Theory Of Chance-Coincidence. Part 9
8. But I have not yet done. There are considerations of a quite different kind which still further strengthen the argument for telepathy as against chance. Though the hallucinations which may b...
-Chapter XIV. Further Visual Cases Occurring To A Single Percipient
1. In Chapter XII (The Development Of Telepathic Hallucinations), a good many specimens of telepathic phantasms were quoted, in illustration of certain special points; and particularly as showi...
-Further Visual Cases Occurring To A Single Percipient. Part 2
Each forearm terminated in a ruffle; beyond that nothing was to be seen. The vision lasted about a minute. After its disappearance I determined to find out what connection it may have had with Mr. Tho...
-Further Visual Cases Occurring To A Single Percipient. Part 3
In the next stage of visualisation the percipient sees a face or figure projected or depicted, as it were, on some convenient surface - the image being thus truly externalised, but in an unreal and un...
-Further Visual Cases Occurring To A Single Percipient. Part 4
1She records - apparently in her journal - that, when sleeping as a child in a hauntod room, she woke in the middle of the night, and saw a brilliant light on the wall, and figures of men passing ov...
-Further Visual Cases Occurring To A Single Percipient. Part 5
2. In the remaining cases the illusion seems to have been practically complete. They constitute what may be called the normal type of these abnormal phenomena. The hallucination goes through no...
-Further Visual Cases Occurring To A Single Percipient. Part 6
(227) On Thursday night, October 30th [1884], H. M. and I went to dine at Broadmoor. We stayed till 10 p.m. or so, and on leaving the house were talking of different things, M. being quite as usual; ...
-Further Visual Cases Occurring To A Single Percipient. Part 7
(228) At about 11 o'clock on the night of December 6th, 1873, I had just got into bed, and had certainly not fallen asleep, or even into a doze, when I suddenly startled my wife by a deep groan, and ...
-Further Visual Cases Occurring To A Single Percipient. Part 8
(236) In the June of 1880, I went to a situation as governess. On the first day of my going there, after retiring for the night, I heard a noise which was like the ticking of a watch. I took no parti...
-Further Visual Cases Occurring To A Single Percipient. Part 9
(238) A labourer named Duck, employed by Mr. Dixon, of Milden hall Warren Farm, near Marlborough, was in charge of a horse and water-cart on the farm, when the animal took fright and knocked him down...
-Further Visual Cases Occurring To A Single Percipient. Part 10
(239) Some 18 or 19 years ago, I remember calling on a working maltster, whose employer was living at Lincoln. His employer was ill at the time, and I asked the man if he had heard from him lately. '...
-Further Visual Cases Occurring To A Single Percipient. Part 11
(241) Last Easter Sunday, I was retiring to bed, just after 11 o'clock, and had stepped off the stairs on the landing that led to my room (my parents' bedroom door being in front of me, about 10 or 1...
-Further Visual Cases Occurring To A Single Percipient. Part 12
(242) In the month of August, 1864, about 3 or 4 o'clock in the afternoon, I was sitting reading in the verandah of our house in Barbadoes. My black nurse was driving my little girl, about 18 months ...
-Further Visual Cases Occurring To A Single Percipient. Part 13
3.1 will now give a group of cases in respect of which the hypothesis of mistaken identity has to be taken into account. The apparition in all of them was seen out-of-doors, and in several of th...
-Further Visual Cases Occurring To A Single Percipient. Part 14
(243) Some months before his demise, my brother (Senator Carlo Fenzi) one day, as we were driving to town together from our villa of St. Andrea, told me that if he should be summoned first, he would ...
-Further Visual Cases Occurring To A Single Percipient. Part 15
(244) In the year 1870, I went one morning from my then home, in Clifton, to order various eatables for the day. On my way, I saw coming towards me, on the same side of the street, J. E. H., a male c...
-Further Visual Cases Occurring To A Single Percipient. Part 16
4. The next type that presents itself is different from any that has yet been mentioned. We have encountered several cases, which there seemed strong grounds for considering telepathic, where t...
-Further Visual Cases Occurring To A Single Percipient. Part 17
5. The types that next claim notice are peculiar in that they involve no coincidence with any ostensibly abnormal condition of the agent. Evidence that certain hallucinations are telepathic, an...
-Further Visual Cases Occurring To A Single Percipient. Part 18
We were playing our favourite game of Golowain, which consisted in dividing into sides at hide-and-seek, the party hiding having the privilege of moving on from place to place until they reached the ...
-Further Visual Cases Occurring To A Single Percipient. Part 19
The following account is from Miss Hopkinson, of 37, Woburn Place, W.C. It will be seen that in this case the evidence is not first-hand from any of the percipients; nor is this case and most of the n...
-Further Visual Cases Occurring To A Single Percipient. Part 20
(257) On three occasions, each time by different persons, I have been seen when not present in the body. The first instance that I was thus seen was by my sister-in-law, who was sitting up with me, t...
-Further Visual Cases Occurring To A Single Percipient. Part 21
6. Of the other class mentioned, where peculiarities of dress or aspect afford the only presumption that a hallucination was more than purely subjective - i.e., was due to an absent agent who, ...
-Further Visual Cases Occurring To A Single Percipient. Part 22
(260) In 1871 I was staying at Norton House, Tenby, for the first time, and had just gone to bed, and was wide awake. I had the candle on my right side, and was reading. At the foot of the bed and to...
-Further Visual Cases Occurring To A Single Percipient. Part 23
(262) An account of a circumstance which occurred to me when quartered at Templemore, Co. Tipperary, on 20 February, 1847. This afternoon, about 3 o'clock p.m., I was walking from my quarters tow...
-Further Visual Cases Occurring To A Single Percipient. Part 24
7. The last case quoted might equally well serve as an example of the next and concluding group, the peculiarity of which is that the real person whom the phantasm represents is - unknown to th...
-Chapter XV. Further Auditory Cases Occurring To A Single Percipient
1. In examining cases of auditory phantasms which have strikingly corresponded with real events, we have two main points to look to. First, there is the phantasm regarded merely as a sensory ph...
-Further Auditory Cases Occurring To A Single Percipient. Part 2
(268) A strange experience occurred in the autumn of the year 1879. A brother of mine had been from home for 3 or 4 days, when, one afternoon, at half-past 5 (as nearly as possible), I was astonished...
-Further Auditory Cases Occurring To A Single Percipient. Part 3
2. We come now to cases where the name heard was probably not actually spoken. The fact that the impression so often takes the form of a call of the percipient's name might be connected with th...
-Further Auditory Cases Occurring To A Single Percipient. Part 4
(277) I can furnish you with an instance of my name being called by my mother, who was 18 miles off, and dying at the time. I was not aware she was ill, nor was I thinking about her at the time. No o...
-Further Auditory Cases Occurring To A Single Percipient. Part 5
3. I now turn from recognised to unrecognised auditory phantasms. [Of five cases given 279 and 281 are here omitted.] The next account is from Mr. Goodyear, now of Avoca Villa, Park Road, Bevoi...
-Further Auditory Cases Occurring To A Single Percipient. Part 6
4. And now we come to cases where the auditory impression was of a complete sentence, conveying either a piece of information or a direction. [Cases 284 and 285 are omitted]. The following e...
-Further Auditory Cases Occurring To A Single Percipient. Part 7
6. We now come to a few specimens of the non-vocal sound-phantasms - the mere noises or shocks - which are the parallel among auditory hallucinations to the rudimentary visual hallucinations wh...
-Chapter XVI. Tactile Cases And Cases Affecting More Than One Of The Percipient's Senses
1. In the chapter on borderland cases, and again in Chapter XII (The Development Of Telepathic Hallucinations), when illustrating the development of hallucinations by the percipient's own ima...
-Cases Affecting Tactile And More Than One Of The Percipient's Senses. Part 2
(295) I was sitting in my room one night, before I was married, close before a toilet-table, on which the book I was reading rested; the table fitted into the corner of the room, and the wide glass o...
-Cases Affecting Tactile And More Than One Of The Percipient's Senses. Part 3
(297) The following is the exact account of the curious appearance to me of my brother. It was either in 1874 or 1875. My brother was third mate on board one of Wigram's large ships. I knew he was so...
-Cases Affecting Tactile And More Than One Of The Percipient's Senses. Part 4
(299) The steamship' Robert Lowe ' returned to the Thames on Tuesday, October nth, 1870, from St. Pierre, Newfoundland, where she had been repairing one of the French Atlantic Telegraph Company's cab...
-Chapter XVII. Reciprocal Telepathy Cases
1. We have now to consider a quite new type of telepathic action. In the classes which have so far been passed in review, whether experimental or spontaneous, the parts of the agent and the per...
-Reciprocal Telepathy Cases. Part 2
(304) I live in Nebraska, U.S., where I have a cattle ranche, etc. I am engaged to be married to a young lady living in Yankton, Dakota, 25 miles north. About the end of October, 1884, while tryi...
-Reciprocal Telepathy Cases. Part 3
2. The remaining cases are, I think, less doubtful. The following account is extracted from the evidence given by the late Mr. Cromwell F. Varley, F.R.S., before a Committee of the Dialectical ...
-Reciprocal Telepathy Cases. Part 4
(306) I found the lady who is now my wife at a large public institution to which I was appointed headmaster, in 1872. On leaving her situation, I induced her, for certain reasons, to conceal the fac...
-Reciprocal Telepathy Cases. Part 5
(307) The following experience happened in the month of November, 1877, in Regency Square, Brighton. My husband [since deceased] was undergoing a course of magnetism from Mr. L., an American. The tre...
-Reciprocal Telepathy Cases. Part 6
The next case was one of collective percipience; but its best place is in the present chapter. The full names of the persons concerned may be mentioned, but not printed. Mrs. S., one of the percipient...
-Chapter XVIII. Collective Telepathy Cases
1. The telepathic cases quoted in the foregoing chapters have almost all affected a single percipient only; and the fact that sometimes the percipient was in company at the time, and that his s...
-Collective Telepathy Cases. Part 2
2. First, then, as regards the theory of the simultaneous origination of two or more hallucinations by a distinct agent - we certainly know of no reason why a state of the agent which is telepa...
-Collective Telepathy Cases. Part 3
I have already given a case (No. 127) where two vivid dreams of a quite unexpected death were dreamt by persons who were in the same house, but not in the same room. The following is a somewhat simila...
-Collective Telepathy Cases. Part 4
In the remaining cases the percipients were much more widely separated; but unfortunately the evidence as to identity of time is very far from complete. The following account is from Mrs. Coote, of 28...
-Collective Telepathy Cases. Part 5
3. I turn now to the second of the two theories above propounded - the theory that one percipient catches the hallucination from another by a process of thought-transference. This is certainly ...
-Collective Telepathy Cases. Part 6
It is at any rate impossible, from the record, to be quite sure that adequate means were taken to exclude this hypothesis, which, as Mr. Pollock has recently informed me, is the one that he is now inc...
-Collective Telepathy Cases. Part 7
I say at certain times advisedly; for all clear evidence of the sort seems to connect the phenomenon with circumstances of rather special absorption or excitement, sometimes even with a state of semi-...
-Collective Telepathy Cases. Part 8
4. I fear to weary the reader by yet further explanations and distinctions before examples are given. But difficulty of exposition and risk of misapprehension alike culminate in this final chapt...
-Collective Telepathy Cases. Part 9
5. I will begin with visual examples, and first of a rudimentary type. [Case 316 - here omitted as remote - describes two flickering flames which slowly moved onto the bed of the two percipient...
-Collective Telepathy Cases. Part 10
In another of the carriage-cases, the hallucination was of a more bizarre sort, the coachman and footman on the box having black faces, and the four ladies inside being dressed completely in black. Th...
-Collective Telepathy Cases. Part 11
In the next example the percipients, though near together, were not actually in one another's company. The case is of special interest, inasmuch as the two percepts were slightly different, - the figu...
-Collective Telepathy Cases. Part 12
The next two cases resemble the last, in the point that the two percipients do not seem to have seen exactly the same thing. Surgeon-Major Samuel Smith, of Wyndham House, Kingsdown Parade, Bristol, se...
-Collective Telepathy Cases. Part 13
In the next two examples (in which the figure was unrecognised) no difference seems to have been noted in the impressions of the two percipients. Mr. Bettany, of 2, Eckington Villas, Ashbourne Grove, ...
-Collective Telepathy Cases. Part 14
In the next example, the apparition seems definitely independent of any conscious mental action on the part of the absent person; for it would be hard to attribute a special telepathic influence to so...
-Collective Telepathy Cases. Part 15
The next account is from Mr. Charles A. W. Lett, of the Military and Royal Naval Club, Albemarle Street, W. December 3rd, 1885. (331) On the 5th April, 1873, my wife's father, Captain Towns, d...
-Collective Telepathy Cases. Part 16
I will give one more recognised case, which presents the curious feature that the figure seen was that of one of the percipients. I have spoken before (Chapter XII (The Development Of Telepathic Hal...
-Collective Telepathy Cases. Part 17
I now pass to auditory cases. I have spoken of the caution which these require; but the following instances must, I think, have been more than mere misinterpretations of real sounds. [No. 334 is he...
-Collective Telepathy Cases. Part 18
The foregoing instances may perhaps suffice to show that a purely psychical account of these joint experiences - as due either partly or wholly to a thought-transference between the percipients - is a...
-Collective Telepathy Cases. Part 19
6. I will begin the list with the auditory class. The following account is from Mr. J. Wood Beilby, of Redbank Cottage, Elgin Road, Beechworth, Victoria. October 17th, 1883. (339) A...
-Collective Telepathy Cases. Part 20
I will add a couple of specimens of the non-vocal type. In the first, the hallucination presents a curiously close connection with the probable idea of the agent at the moment, The account is from Mrs...
-Collective Telepathy Cases. Part 21
In the next case [344 omitted here for brevity though recent. - Ed.] the coincidence seems again to have been close to within a very few minutes; but the form [a church bell] which the hallucination (...
-Collective Telepathy Cases. Part 22
In the remaining visual cases, the impression seems to have been distinct and identical to all the percipients. I will begin with a case where it is a question whether a distant agent was or was not t...
-Collective Telepathy Cases. Part 23
[Case 349 is omitted.] We owe the next account in the first instance to Mrs. Willink, of Lindale Parsonage, Grange-over-Sands. The three firsthand witnesses all appear to be persons of good sense and ...
-Collective Telepathy Cases. Part 24
The following case is from Mr. S. S. Falkinburg, of Uniontown, Ky., U.S.A., decorator and house painter. Sept. 12th, 1884. (352) The following circumstance is impressed upon my mind in a...
-Collective Telepathy Cases. Part 25
[Cases 353 and 354 are omitted.] In the next example of the two persons present, one of whom was son, and the other a stranger, to the agent, the stranger alone saw the phantasm, though both seem to h...
-Collective Telepathy Cases. Part 26
(356) During the last week of July, 1882, Mr. and Mrs. W. and family had settled themselves comfortably in a house they had hired at the Lizard, Cornwall; and a few days later Mr. Cox, an amateur art...
-Collective Telepathy Cases. Part 27
7. The cases of the preceding section, and of 2, though not evidentially among the strongest in our collection, are sufficient, I think, to establish a strong presumption for the genuine...
-Collective Telepathy Cases. Part 28
In the earlier part of this chapter, I consulted clearness by keeping separate the hypothesis (1) of joint and independent affection of B and C by A, and the hypothesis (2) of C's affection by B who a...
-Conclusion
1. In bringing to a close the principal division of this work - the presentation of the case for spontaneous telepathy as supported by a considerable body of first-hand records - it will scarce...







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