Anthony Wayne, an American soldier, born in Chester co., Pa., Jan. 1,1745, died at Presque Isle (Erie), Dec. 14, 1796. His grandfather, a native of England who settled in Ireland, commanded a squadron of dragoons in the battle of the Boyne, and his father served in several expeditions against the Indians. Anthony was educated at the Philadelphia academy, and became a surveyor. He visited Nova Scotia in 1765-'6 as agent for a land company, and in 1767 married and settled on a farm in his native county. In 1774 he was a member of the Pennsylvania convention, and was elected to the legislature. In 1775 he was a member of the committee of safety, and in September he raised a regiment of volunteers, with which, being commissioned as colonel, he joined Gen. Sullivan in Canada in the spring of 1776. He was conspicuous in the battle of Three Rivers, and was afterward placed in command of the fortresses of Ticonderoga and Mount Independence. In May, 1777, he was made a brigadier general, and joined Washington in New Jersey. At the battle of Brandy wine (Sept. 11) his command opposed all day the passage of the river at Chadd's ford by Howe's right wing, and at sunset retreated. On the 20th Wayne was suddenly attacked and defeated near Paoli. At Germantown he led the attack of the right wing.
During the winter of 1777-8 he made a raid within the British lines, and captured a large amount of cattle, horses, and forage. His skilful manoeuvring at Monmouth was especially commended in Washington's report of that battle. In the night of July 15-16, 1779, Wayne surprised and captured the garrison of Stony Point on the Hudson (see Stony Point), for which brilliant achievement he received the thanks of congress and a gold medal. In leading the attack he was wounded in the head. In January, 1781, he skilfully suppressed a serious mutiny at Morristown. In February he was ordered to join the southern army, and at Jamestown ford, Va., July 6, by a prompt attack he saved Lafayette's forces from disaster. He assisted in the capture of Cornwallis, and soon after was assigned to command in Georgia, where he routed large bodies of Indians on their way to reŽnforce the British, and drove the enemy from the state. The legislature gave him a vote of thanks and a large tract of land. After the war he retired to his farm.
In April, 1792, he was appointed major general and commander-in-chief in the war against the western Indians; and he gained a signal victory over the Miamis in August, 1794. He was shortly afterward appointed sole commissioner to treat with the Indians of the northwest, and to take possession of all forts held by the British in that territory, and died while returning from this expedition. On account of his bravery and apparent rashness he was popularly called " mad Anthony Wayne." His life by John Armstrong is included in Sparks's "American Biography" (1st series, vol. iv.).