Belluno. I. A province of Venetia, Italy, bounded N. and W. by Tyrol, E. by the province of Udine, and S. by Treviso and Vicenza; area, 1,263 sq. m.; pop. in 1871, 175,370. It is situated amid the rugged ramifications of the Trentine and Carnic Alps. The principal river, the Piave, is united by a canal with the Taglia-mento. The pasturage on the mountains, the extensive forests, and the rearing of cattle and sheep, and to some extent the production of wine, are the main sources of prosperity. The grain crops are limited, and the mineral wealth, though extensive, is not sufficiently developed. The chief article of export is timber. The province is divided into the districts of Pieve di Ca-dore, Agordo, Auronzo, Belluno, Feltre, Fon-zaso, and Longarone. II. A walled city (anc. Bellunum or Belunum), capital of the province, at the junction of the Ardo with the Piave, 48 m. N. of Venice; pop. about 14,000. The city is built on a promontory and flanked by a precipitous hill, the scenery being remarkably fine. The cathedral, built by Palladio, contains a bust of Pope Gregory XVI., who was born here, and pictures by Bassano and other artists. In front of the Gothic church of St. Stephen is a Roman sarcophagus of the 4th century.
There are 12 other churches, two convents, an academy of science and arts, a superior gymnasium, a chamber for commerce and industry, a fine theatre, and an aqueduct 6 m. long. A bishop, formerly called count of Belluno, resides here, and the episcopal chapter or council possess an excellent library. A road leads from the city to the Agordo copper mines. There is an active trade in timber, and silk and other articles are manufactured here. The title of duke of Belluno, conferred on the French marshal Victor, is derived from this town.