Benjamin Smith Barton, an American naturalist, born at Lancaster, Penn., Feb. 10, 1766, died in Philadelphia, Dec. 19, 1815. He was a son of the Rev. Thomas Barton and a nephew of Dr. David Rittenhouse. After his parents' death, and after a course of general studies at York, Penn., under Dr. Andrews, he studied medicine and the natural sciences in Philadelphia (1782-6), and in Edinburgh and London (1786-8), and took his medical degree in Got-tingen in 1788 or 1789. Subsequently he practised his profession in Philadelphia, and became professor of botany and natural history, retaining this position after the incorporation of the college with the university in 1791. He received the chair of materia medica in 1795, and succeeded Dr. Rush in that of the theory and practice of medicine. He was president of the Philadelphia medical society, vice president of the American philosophical society, a member of many other American and European societies, and a correspondent of Humboldt and other savants. Among his works are: "Elements of Botany" (2d ed., 2 vols., 1812-'14); "Collections for an Essay toward a Materia Medica of the United States" (3d ed., 1810); Flora Virginica (1812); and numerous other writings, chiefly relating to natural history, and on medical, philological, and archaeological subjects. - His nephew, William P. C. Barton, M. D., succeeded him in the chair of botany, and died in 1856. He wrote "Memoirs" of his uncle, "Flora of America" (3 vols., 1821-'3), "Vegetable Materia Medica of the United States, or Medical Botany" (illustrated, 1817-'25), and other works.