I. Felipe

Felipe, a Cuban naturalist, of French descent, born in Havana in 1802. He studied law in Madrid, where he was implicated in a political conspiracy, and fled to Paris. There he published in 1828 La centurie des lepidop-teres, and helped to found the French entomological society. He returned to Havana after the revolution of 1830, was commissioned in 1837 to organize a museum of natural history and became one of its directors, and was soon afterward appointed professor of natural history in the university of Havana. In 1840 he published a school geography of the island of Cuba, and in 1842 a more comprehensive work on the same subject and a Geogrqfia universal. In 1864 he published Hfemorias sobre la Mstoria natural de la isla de Cuba (2 vols. 4to, Havana); the text is in Spanish, French, and Latin. In 1865 he commenced a monthly periodical entitled Reper-torio fisico-natural de la isla de Cuba, in which he has described upward of 230 new species of fishes, as well as the ciguatera or jaundice caused by eating certain Cuban fishes. He has also published some remarkable poems.

He is a member of the Smithsonian institution and a corresponding member of the French academy of sciences.

II. Andres

Andres, a Cuban meteorologist, son of the preceding, born in Havana in 1827. About 1846 he edited a literary journal entitled El Colibri, but engaged in meteorological studies, and was for several years director of the physico-meteorological observatory of Havana, the chief object of which was the improvement of agriculture in Cuba. His principal works are: Des caracteres des eclairs en boule (Paris, 1855); Des tempetes electriques (1855); Tremblements de terre d Cuba de 1551 d 1855 (1855); Catalogue des tremblements de terre dans les Indes Occidentales (Versailles, 1858); Observations sur la comtee Donati and Repartition geographique des meteores (Paris, 1858); Relation historique et theorie des images photo-electriques de la foudre observees depuis Van 360 de notre ere jusqu'en 1860 (1860); Travaux sur la meteorologie, la physique du globe en general, et sur la climatologie de Vile de Cuba et des Antilles (1861); and Table chro-nologique de quatre cents cyclones qui ont sevi dans les Indes Occidentales et dans l'Ocean Atlantique nord depuis 1493 jusqu'en 1855 (1862). Most of his works have been translated into Spanish after having been published in French. In the " Report of the Smithsonian Institution" for 1870, he published a memoir proposing a new classification of clouds, which included only two primary types in place of the three of Howard. (See Clouds, vol. iv., p. 712.) He is a corresponding member of the French academy of sciences.

Lately he has become an ardent partisan of Comte's positive philosophy, and in 1875 commenced printing La bibliotheque positiviste, exposition du positivisme.