A S. E. State Of The Republic Of Mexico, bounded N. and E. by Vera Cruz, S. by Oajaca, S. W. by Guerrero, and W. by Mexico, Tlascala, and Hidalgo; area, 9,598 sq. m.; pop. in 1869, 697,788. It is intersected from N. W. to S. E. by the Cordillera of Anįhuac, from which flow many small streams, but there are no large rivers. The drainage belongs partly to the gulf of Mexico and partly to the Pacific. The general elevation of the surface is about 6,000 ft., and a large part of the soil is fertile. The most valuable mineral productions are silver, marble, and alabaster. Abundant crops of grain, fruit, sugar, and cotton are produced; and iron, steel, glass, soap, and earthenware are manufactured. Many remarkable remains of ancient Mexican civilization are found in this state.
A City (La Puebla De Los Angeles), capital of the state, 7,000 ft. above the sea, in lat. 19° 5' N, Ion. 98° W., 76 m. E. S. E. of Mexico; pop. in 1869, 75,500. The streets are laid out generally at right angles to each other, and are broad and well paved. There are many fine squares; fronting the Plaza Mayor are the cathedral, the governor's palace, and the exchange. Puebla is the sacred city of Mexico, and contains more than 60 churches, 13 nunneries, 9 monasteries, 21 collegiate houses or higher theological schools, and many academies, charity schools, hospitals, and other benevolent institutions. Many of the churches and convents are rich in gold and silver ornaments, paintings, and statues, but some of them were injured by the French during the siege in 1863. The city is well supplied with water by a small stream on its E. side. The country around it is very fertile, it being easily irrigated by streams from the mountains. The climate is particularly mild and agreeable. Within sight of the city are the volcanic peaks of Popocatepetl, distant about 25 m. W. by S.; Iztaccihuatl, 30 m. W. N. W.; Malinche, 20 m. N. E.; and Orizaba, 60 m.
E. Puebla is connected with the railway from Vera Cruz to Mexico by a branch road to Apizaco, 29 m. long, and a road is now building (1875) to connect it directly with Vera Cruz. - Puebla was founded after the reduction of Mexico by the Spaniards, who built it six miles from Cholula, the sacred city of the Mexicans. It is noted for its protracted defence against the French under Gen. Forey in 1863, when it withstood a siege of two months. It was surrendered by Gen. Ortega on May 17, after the destruction of many of its buildings by bombardment, and the French made a triumphal entry on the 19th.