Saint Martin, bishop of Tours, born at Sa-baria in Pannonia about 316, died at Cande in Touraine about 400. He was educated for the military profession, and entered the army of Constantino the Great at 15. At 18 he was sent into Gaul and stationed at Amiens. He left the army in 338, and became the disciple of St. Hilary of Poitiers, who instructed him and ordained him priest. After living as a monk at Milan and in the little island of Gallinaria near Genoa, he rejoined St. Hilary at Poitiers on his return from exile in 360. He built at Liguge near that city the first monastery, according to some, established in Gaul. In 371 he was elected bishop of Tours, and built the monastery of Marmoutiers, in which he chiefly resided, and which became so renowned for learning and piety that the neighboring churches chose their bishops there. The unwearied labors of Martin and his followers caused him to be looked upon as the second apostle of Gaul. He visited the imperial court repeatedly to denounce the tyranny of the provincial officers.

In 383 he obtained from the usurper Maximus at Treves the pardon of several bishops and high magistrates sentenced to exile or death as adherents of the emperor Gratian. At the same time both he and St. Ambrose opposed Ithacius and other Spanish bishops, who urged Maximus to put to death the Manichoean Priscillian and his adherents. The Spaniards having succeeded in their purpose after Martin's departure, he renounced all fellowship with them. About 385 the historian Sulpitius Severus became his disciple, and thenceforward accompanied him in his continual missionary excursions. St. Martin is the first in the Latin church to whom was given the title of "confessor" as distinguished from that of martyr. His feast is celebrated on Nov. 11, hence called "Martinmas" in Great Britain, and distinguished by an equivalent appellation in France and Germany. His life, written by Sulpitius Severus, was printed in the second volume of Aldus Manutius's Poetce Christiani (Venice, 1501), and reprinted separately at Paris in 1511. See also Dupuy, His-toire de Saint Martin (Paris, 1852); and Mon-talembert, Les moines d'Occident.

Saint Martin #1

Saint Martin, a S. parish of Louisiana, bordered E. by Atchafalaya and Grand rivers, S. W. by Chetimaches lake, and intersected by Teche bayou; area, about 500 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 9,370, of whom 5,064 were colored. The surface is level and the soil fertile. The chief productions in 1870 were 192,840 bushels of Indian corn, 9,898 of sweet potatoes, 3,428 bales of cotton, 1,494 hogsheads of sugar, and 75,740 gallons of molasses. There were 2,413 horses, 1,372 mules and asses, 3,101 milch cows, 7,401 other cattle, 3,769 sheep, and 5,109 swine, and 30 molasses and sugar establishments. Capital, St. Martinsville.

Saint Martin #2

Saint Martin, an island in the N. E. angle of the West Indian archipelago, 5 m. S. of An-guilla, in lat. 18° 5' N, lon. 63° 3' W.; area, about 30 sq. m.; pop. about 6,600. The shore is deeply indented, and the surface hilly, the summit being 1,360 ft. above the sea. The soil is not rich; the climate is warm but healthy. The northern part (pop. 3,600, area, 13,166 acres) belongs to France; one third of it is cultivated, yielding annually 2,000,00.0 lbs. of sugar, 25,000 gallons of molasses, and 50,000 of rum. The southern part, belonging to Holland (pop. 3,000), is less fertile, but yields annually 2,500,000 lbs. of sugar, 130,000 gallons of rum, great quantities of salt collected from marshes bordering the coast, and fine tobacco. Mari-got is the capital of the French, Philisburg of the Dutch colony. The island was first settled in 1638 by both nations.