Abraham Bloemaert

Abraham Bloemaert, a Dutch painter, born at Gorkum about 1504, died in Utrecht in 1047. He was the son of an architect, studied under Dutch and French masters, and painted for the churches of Brussels and Mechlin. He excelled in landscape and as acolorist. The best of his historical pictures is that representing the death of Niobe and her children. He produced a number of excellent copper etchings in chiaroscuro. His four sons also were favorably known artists, especially Cornelis and Adrian, engravers.

Abraham Bzovius

Abraham Bzovius (Pol. Bzowski), a Polish scholar, born at Proszowice in 1567, died in Rome, Jan. 31, 1637. He was a Dominican, one of the most voluminous writers of his age, gained for himself a high reputation as professor of philosophy and theology at Milan and Bologna, and continued the ecclesiastical annals of Baronius, who had left them off at the year 1198, having completed only 12 volumes. Bzovius carried them to the year 1532, in 9 volumes, from the 13th to the 21st, published first in Cologne and afterward in Rome.

Abraham Constantin

Abraham Constantin, a Swiss painter on porcelain, born in Geneva in 1785. He was originally an ornamenter of watch dials, but upon going to Paris devoted himself to painting on porcelain. His first work, a copy of Raphael's Madonna della seggiola, was executed for the empress Josephine. He afterward spent many years in Italy studying the works of Raphael. In 1832 he was commissioned by Louis Philippe to make copies of Raphael's chief works in the Vatican. The "Transfiguration" alone occupied him a year. He also made copies of the masterpieces of Titian, Cor-reggio, and others, and in a few instances attempted original compositions and portraits from life. His best works are in the museum at Sevres and in the royal collection at Turin. He made some valuable discoveries in the mechanical processes of his art, particularly with reference to the effect of burning upon colors.

Abraham Demoivre

See Moivre.

Abraham Gotthelf Kastner

Abraham Gotthelf Kastner, a German mathematician, born in Leipsic, Sept. 27, 1719, died in Gottingen, June 20, 1800. He was the son of a professor, embraced in his studies almost all branches of learning, and exerted a powerful influence in delivering mathematical and natural sciences from the bondage of antiquated text books. He was professor at Leipsic, and afterward at Gottingen. His Anfangsgriinde der Mathematik (6th ed., 1800), and his various other writings, inaugurated a more enlightened era of scientific study in Germany. He took a conspicuous part in the formation of the celebrated union of Gottingen poets. His popularity was chiefly due to his Sinngedichte. His colleague, Heyne, pronounced a eulogium on him in 1804. A portion of his epigrammatic poems were included in his "Miscellaneous writings " (2 vols., 1783).

Abraham Hayward

Abraham Hayward, an English writer and translator, born about 1800. He is a lawyer, holding the rank of queen's counsel. His works are: "Statutes founded on the Common Law Reports" (London, 1832); a prose translation of Goethe's "Faust" (1833-'47); translation of Savigny's "Vocation of our Age for Legislation and Jurisprudence" (1839); "Law regarding Marriage with the Sister of a Deceased Wife" (1840); "Juridical Tracts" (1850); "Biographical and Critical Essays" (2 vols., 1858-73); "Autobiography, Letters, and Remains of Mrs. Piozzi" (2 vols., 1861); "Diaries of a Lady of Quality from 1797 to 1844 " (1804); and "More about Junius" (18G8).