Bernbirg, a towm of Anhalt, Germany, capital of a district of its name, and formerly of the duchy of Anhalt-Bernburg, on both sides of the Saale, 15 m. above its confluence with the Elbe, 20 m. W. of Dessau; pop. in 1871, 15,716. It has an ancient castle with a fine garden, theatre, etc, adjoining, a town hall, hospitals, and schools of different grades. Sugar, paper, and iron castings are manufactured.
Bernhard Bolzano, a German philosopher and Roman Catholic theologian, born in Prague, Oct. 5, 1781, died there, Dec. 18, 1848. He was professor of divinity in the high school of Prague from 1805 to 1820, and, supported by the archbishop of Prague, withstood the opposition of the ultramontanes, who regarded him as a follower of Schelling. In 1820 he was suspended, and hampered in his literary activity and social intercourse. His high character, piety, and benevolence secured for him a host of friends, and he lived for many years on the estate of one of them near Prague, and afterward in that city with the assistance of Count Leo von Thun. His principal works are: Lehrouch der Religions-wissenschaft (6 vols., Sulzbach, 1834); Wis-senschaftslehre, oder Versuch einer neuen Dar-stellung der Logik (4 vols., 1837); and Atha-nasia, oder Grunde fur die Unsterblichlceit der Seele (2d revised ed., 1838).
Bernhard Von Breidenbach, a priest of Mentz, who visited Palestine about 1483, died in 1497. On his return to Germany he wrote in Latin an account of his travels, which was published in several editions before his death. This work was accompanied by engravings of the scenery, costumes, and animals of the Holy Land, and contained several oriental alphabets, said to have been the first ever printed.
Bernina, a peak of the Rluetian Alps, in the canton of Grisons, Switzerland, 30 m. S. E. of Chur, 18,294 feet in height. It gives its name to the range of mountains that separate the valleys of the Engadine and Bregaglia from the Valteline. The Bernina pass, 7,072 feet above the sea. connects the Valteline with the upper Engadine valley.
Bernliard Von Neher, a German painter, born at Biberach, Würtemberg, in 1806. He studied under his father, Joseph Neher, and in Stuttgart, Munich, and Rome, where the king of Wiirtemberg enabled him to spend four years. After his return to Munich he executed, from cartoons which he had prepared in Italy, a stupendous fresco on the Isar gate of Munich, representing the entrance of the emperor Louis of Bavaria, which gave him a wide reputa-tion, but was unfortunately partly destroyed. In 1836 he went to Weimar to embellish the grand-ducal palace with frescoes illustrative of Schiller and Goethe. In 1844 he became director of the art school at Leipsic, and in 1846 of that of Stuttgart. He was made a director of the latter in 1854, and decorations were conferred upon him in 1865 and 1869.