Branchiopoda (Gr.Branchiopoda 0300136 gills, andBranchiopoda 0300137 a foot), an order of the section entomostraca of the Crustacea, the animals of which are small, mostly inhabit stagnant fresh water, and are provided with feet which are used only for swimming, except that in some instances they contain the organs of respiration. The bodies are protected by a corneous or membranous covering, with a shield in one piece, or divided like a bivalve shell. One species, the bran-chipus stagnalis, is common in New England in stagnant pools. It is about an inch long, and is furnished with numerous fringed legs, which are in constant motion.

Brandywine Creek

Brandywine Creek, a stream which rises in the N. W. part of Chester co., Penn., flows through the interior in a S. E. direction, and empties into Christiana creek at the city of Wilmington, Del. It furnishes power throughout its course for many valuable mill seats. On its banks the Americans, 13,000 strong, under Washington, were defeated by the British, 18,000 strong, under Howe, Sept. 11, 1777.


Brant, a S. W. county of Ontario, Canada, drained by Grand river and traversed by the Great Western and the Buffalo and Lake Huron railways; area, 416 sq. m.; pop. in 1871, 33,269. The surface is somewhat diversified, but most of it is level. The soil is exceedingly fertile. Capital, Brantford.

Brant Goose

See Goose.


Brantford, a town of Canada, province of Ontario, capital of the county of Brant, W. of Lake Ontairo, 60 m. S. W. of Toronto, and 75 m. K W. of Buffalo; pop. in 1871, 8,107. It occupies a commanding position on the banks of the Grand river. The county buildings were erected at a cost of $40,000. It has an excellent system of water works, constructed at a moderate cost, and is well lighted with gas. Several branches of manufacture employ a large number of persons. Among them are engine works, founderies, and manufactories of agricultural implements. There are ten churches, and a widows' and an orphans' home. Situated on the Goderich and Buffalo railway, its facilities of access to all points east and west are excellent. Until 1830 the town plot was a reserve of the Six Nations.


Brat, a small parish of Berkshire, England, 23 m. W. of London. A clergyman who held the vicarage of Bray in the 16th century was a Roman Catholic in the reign of Henry VIII., became a Protestant with that monarch, and remained so during the reign of Edward VL, became a Catholic again in the reign of Mary, and turned Protestant again when Elizabeth ascended the throne of England. On being reproached with his frequent changes of principle, he made answer very wittily: "Not so, neither; for if I changed my religion, I am sure I kept true to my principle, which is to live and die the vicar of Bray! "