Calamander Wood, a hard and beautiful wood imported from Ceylon. It is taken from the heart of the diospyros hirsuta, a species of the genus of trees which produces ebony. It has a great variety of color, the prevailing shade being a delicate chocolate, and is adapted to ornamental work, as it takes a fine polish. It is very scarce and costly. The name is believed to be a corruption of Coromandel wood.
Calamis, a Greek statuary, who flourished between 467 and 429 B. 0. He made statues in marble, bronze, gold, and ivory. Among those mentioned by ancient writers are one in marble of Apollo, which some have erroneously supposed to be the Apollo Belvedere; a bronze Apollo Alexicacos, at Athens; another Apollo in marble in the Servilian gardens in Rome; a colossal bronze Apollo, carried to Rome by Lu-cullus from Apollonia in Illyria; a Jupiter Amnion consecrated at Thebes by Pindar. He was also famous for his representations of horses, and as an embosser.
Calamianes, a group of islands of the Philippine archipelago, intersected by lat. 12° N., Ion. 120° E. It consists of the large islands Busva-gon, Calamian, Linacapan, Coron, Dumaran, Yloe, Lutaya, Carandaga, and about 240 unimportant islands and islets. This group and the northern portion of the island of Palawan, called Paragua, constitute the province of Cala-mianes, the poorest and least populous of the Spanish Philippines. Area, about 2,300 sq. m.; pop. about 20,000. The inhabitants of the group and of the Spanish portion of Palawan are of the Bisaya race, and have been converted to Christianity by the Spanish missionaries. There is a Spanish settlement and residence of an alcalde on Calamian. The colonists are engaged chiefly in pearl fisheries.
Caland, Or Kaland, a religious brotherhood dating from the 13th century, consisting of Roman Catholic priests and laymen, devoted to charitable and devotional labors. It was confirmed by the local bishops, though not by the pope, and acquired considerable corporate influence and property, mainly in N. Germany, but to some extent in Switzerland, France, Hungary, and probably in Sweden. Many of the brotherhood held licenses for breweries, and their beer-drinking degenerated in the 15th and 16th centuries into orgies; and the reputation of the order sank so low that it was dissolved previous to the reformation, its property being appropriated to public uses.
Calascibetta, a town of Sicily, in the province and 15 m. N. E. of Caltanisetta; pop. about 5,500. Near it are many caverns.
Calatafimi, a town of Sicily, in the province of Trapani, 34 m. S. W. of Palermo; pop. nearly 10,000. It is called after a Saracenic castle, the ruins of which occupy an eminence, and are used as a prison. The town is ill built, but commands a fine view of the ruins of Segesta and of the adjoining hills, which are clothed with vineyards, olive orchards, and grain fields. It contains several convents and churches. Agriculture is the main occupation, and excellent cheese is made. Calatafimi has given its name to the first successful battle of Garibaldi, May 15, 1860, with a little more than 2,000 men, against the Neapolitans, who had 3,600 men and four guns. The real contest was near Vita, four miles from the town; but the Neapolitans after their defeat fled to Calatafimi.