Callirrhoe, a fountain near Athens. In the time of the Pisistratidoe it received the name Enneacrunus (the nine springs), because its waters were there distributed by nine pipes. It still bears its ancient name.
Callisteia (Gr., from prize of beauty), a festival among the ancient Greeks at which a prize was adjudged to the fairest. One of these contests was held by the women in the temple of Juno on the island of Lesbos; another formed a part of the festival celebrated by the Parrhasians in Arcadia, in honor of Ceres Eleusinia; and a third occurred among the Eleans. In the last, only men contended; the most beautiful man received a suit of armor which he dedicated to Minerva, and on his way to the temple was encompassed by his friends and adorned with ribbons and a myrtle wreath.
Callisthenes, a Greek philosopher, born at Olynthus. He was a relation and pupil of Aristotle, by whose recommendation he accompanied Alexander the Great to Asia. He often expressed disapprobation to Alexander, and at length, when the conqueror had adopted the pomp and the humiliating ceremonial of the Persian court, Callisthenes not only freely uttered his own indignation, but excited displeasure among the soldiers. He was put to death by command of Alexander. He wrote several histories, which are lost; but one of the most popular of the medieval romances, filled with traditions and fancies concerning the oriental life of Alexander, has been attributed to him.
Callisto, an Arcadian nymph, a companion of Diana in the chase, beloved by Jupiter, to whom she bore a son, Areas. To conceal the amour, Jupiter metamorphosed her into a she bear. Juno discovered the truth, and caused Diana to shoot the bear. Jupiter placed Cal-listo, under the name of Arctos (bear), among the stars.
Callistratus, an Athenian orator. He was a member of the oligarchical party in Athens, and a supporter of Spartan interests in that city. In June, 371 B. C, he accompanied the ambassadors from Athens to the Lacedaemonian congress then assembled at Sparta to negotiate a peace. He made an effective speech advocating the separate autonomy of the Grecian cities, and on that basis the treaty was concluded. In 366 he defended himself and his former colleague Chabrias, when prosecuted for advising the intrusting of the town of Oropus to the Thebans; and Demosthenes was so much impressed by his eloquence on this occasion that he resolved to devote himself to the study of oratory. Callistratus was acquitted, but he was not forgiven by the people, and in 361 was on some pretext condemned to death. He went into banishment in Macedonia, where he is said to have founded Datum, afterward Nea-polis, the seaport of Philippi. Some years later he returned to Athens and was put to death.