Carbazotic Acid

See Picrio Acid.


Carbondale, a city of Luzerne co., Penn., on the Delaware and Hudson railroad, at the head of Lackawanna valley, and near the source of the Lackawanna river, 110 m. N. N. W. of Philadelphia; pop. in 1870, 6,393. The Lackawanna valley-is extremely rich in beds of coal, which in the vicinity of Carbondale are 20 ft. thick. The mines are worked by the Delaware and Hudson canal company, who take out annually about 900,000 tons. The coal is drawn up inclined planes by steam engines, to a height of 850 ft.; thence it' is conveyed by railroad to Honesdale; and from Honesdale, by the Delaware and Hudson canal, to the Hudson river. The city was incorporated in 1851. It contains eight churches, a bank, a graded school, and a weekly newspaper.

Carburets, Or Carbides

Carburets, Or Carbides, combinations of carbon with the other elements. Cast iron, being a mixture of carbon with iron, is called carburet of iron. For carburet of sulphur see Carbon Disulphioe.


Carcajente, a town of Spain, in the province and 23 m. S. S. W. of Valencia, in a beautiful plain on the Jucar; pop. about 9,000. It is handsome and prosperous, and has several linen and woollen manufacturies. Many Roman remains have been discovered in its vicinity. The chief trade is in silks, oranges, and pomegranates.


Cardigan (called by the Welsh Alertgify), a seaport, municipal and parliamentary borough, and the chief town of Cardiganshire, Wales, on the right bank of the river Teify, at the commencement of its wide estuary, 3 m. from the sea, 195 m. W. by N. of London; pop. in 1871, 3,535. Ruins of old fortifications still stand in the immediate vicinity of the town, and on a hill commanding the river is the ancient castle of Cardigan, begun by Gilbert de Clare about 1160, with two towers and a wall still standing. An ancient bridge crosses the river opposite the town. Owing to obstructions in the harbor, only vessels of light tonnage can come up to the wharves at most seasons of the year. The chief exports are oats, butter, and slates. In 1864 the inhabitants owned 118 sailing vessels under and 69 sailing vessels over 50 tons. The salmon and herring fisheries are of some importance.


Cardiganshire, a maritime county of South Wales, bordering on Cardigan bay; area, 693 sq. m.; pop. in 1871, 73,488. The county is mountainous, except in the N. E. near the sea, where it is flat. The rivers are small, the principal being the Teify, Ystwith, and Dody, and there are several small lakes. Slate is the prevailing geological feature of the county. Veins of copper, lead, and zinc are found. Some domestic manufactures of woollen are carried on; oats, butter, cattle, sheep, woollens, and slates are exported. Remains of castles and religious houses are frequent, as are druidical remains and Roman encampments. Capital, Cardigan.

Cardinal Virtues

Cardinal Virtues, those moral virtues which are regarded as being the basis of, and involved in greater or less degree in, all right action; so named from cardo, a hinge, as denoting the fundamental point on which all things turn. Of these the ancients reckoned four, representing the four principal divisions of the circle which a hinge describes. These four were justice, prudence, temperance, and fortitude.