Chandernagore, a French colony in India, on the lloogly, 17m. N. of Calcutta; pop. about 29,000, of whom a few hundred are Europeans and the rest Hindoos. The settlement includes, besides the town, an island in the river and several villages, with an aggregate population of about 40,000. The quays of the town are fine, and the streets are in good condition; yet it presents a dilapidated appearance, though there are vestiges of former splendor and many Hindoo temples. The main occupation of the inhabitants is raising cattle. The principal export is opium. - This settlement was ceded in 1688 to the French Fast India company, and flourished under Dupleix. The English captured the town in 1757, and dismantled the fortifications. Restored to France in 1763, it again became an English possession in 1793. In 1816 it was returned to France, but has lost almost all its former importance.


Chang-Choo-Foo, a city of China, in the province of Fokien, on the river Chang, 30 m. W. of Amoy; lat. 24 35' N., lon. 117° 50' E.; pop. estimated at nearly 1,000,000. It lies in a picturesque valley, and is surrounded by a wall about 4 1/2 m. in circumference, in which are four principal gates at the N., E., S., and W., not only forming means of access for roads into the city, but also admitting canals. The houses are very well built, but the streets are narrow, their width seldom exceeding 12 ft. A remarkable bridge crosses the river opposite the town; it is built on irregularly piled stone piers, of which there are about 30, nearly 30 ft. apart. The roadway, about 20 ft. above the water, is made of large stone blocks resting upon wooden beams. Chang-choo-foo is the centre of the silk manufacture of the province, and its trade both with the interior and with foreign ports is very active. Large tile and sugar factories give commercial importance to the suburbs.


Chant (It. canto fermo; Fr. plein chant), a modification of song, between air and recitative, such as is adapted to the psalms and litanies. This species of music is very ancient. St. Paul exhorts the early Christians to chant psalms and canticles. Pliny the Younger mentions that the Christians assembled at break of day to chant their hymns. The chant grew with the progress of Christianity. Pope Sylvester about 330 founded a school for its culture; and St. Ambrose arranged from the old Greek music a new description of chant, the Ambro-sian, which remained in use until superseded by the chant arranged by Pope Gregory the Great, hence called the Gregorian or Roman chant, and which, somewhat modified, is in use at the present day. (See Ambrosian Chant, and Gregorian Chant.) Chants are properly of three kinds: the monody, sung by one voice; the antiphony, alternately by two; and the choral, by all voices.

Chantibun, Or Chan-Ta-Bon

Chantibun, Or Chan-Ta-Bon, a town of Siamese Cambodia, on a small river 5 m. E. of the gulf of Siam. 140 m. S. E. of Bangkok; pop. about 30,000, chiefly Chinese. It lies at the foot of a chain of mountains. The exports include pepper, rice, gamboge, cardamoms, and dye-woods, which are shipped on small boats to Bangkok and thence sent to foreign countries.