Charles Felix Marie Texier, a French archaeologist, born in Versailles, Aug. 29, 1802. He studied architecture at the school of fine arts in Paris, was employed for ten years in explorations in the East under the patronage of the government, and was afterward inspector of public buildings in France and Algeria. His works, remarkable for learning and magnificent illustrations, include Description de l'Ar-menie, de la Perse et de la Mesopotamie (2 vols, fol, Paris, 1842-'5); Description de l'Asie Mineure (4 vols., 1839 et seq., and simultaneously in English by R. P. Pullan); Edesse et ses monuments en Mesopotamie (1859); and in conjunction with Pullan, "Byzantine Architecture" (London, 1864), and "The Principal Ruins of Asia Minor " (1865).
Charles Francois De Cisternay Du Fay, a French savant, born in Paris, Sept. 14, 1698, died July 16, 1739. He made new researches concerning phosphorus, the barometer, the refracting power of crystals, the magnet, and electricity. He introduced the theory of two kinds of electricity, the vitreous and the resinous. He spent ten years in rearranging and improving the jardin des plantes, and made it the first establishment of the kind in Europe.
Charles Francois Dominique De Tillers, a French philosopher, born at Boulay, Lorraine, about 1765, died in Leipsic, Feb. 26,1815. He was an artillery officer, but wrote against the revolution, and settled in 1797 in Lübeck. He devoted himself to the introduction of German literature and philosophy in France, translated a number of important works, and wrote La philosophic de Kant, ou principes fondamentaux de la philosophic transcendentale (1801), Essai sur l'esprit et l'influence de la reformation de Luther (1804), Coup d'oeil sur les universites de l'Allemagneprotestante (1808), and Lettre d Madame la comtesse Fanny de Beauharnais sur Lubeck, in which he related the atrocities committed by the French at the capture of that city, and which caused his arrest and exile in 1811, when the Hanseatic towns were incorporated in the French empire. He found an asylum in Göttingen, where he became professor, but at the restoration of the Hanoverian dynasty he was deposed.
Charles Francois Jalabert, a French painter, born in Nimes in 1819. He studied under Paul Delaroche and in Italy, executing there his famous picture of "Virgil reading his Georgics to Maecenas in presence of Horace and Varus," which he exhibited in 1847, and which is in the Luxembourg. His "St. Luke "
(1852) is at Sevres, and his "Annunciation"
(1853) is in the ministry of state. He excels both as a religious and as a genre and landscape painter. His works include "The Farewell of Romeo and Juliet," " Raphael at work on the Madonna di San Sisto," " Christ walking on the Sea," "Villanella" (a Roman landscape), and many female portraits.
Charles Francois Maximilicn Marie, a French mathematician, horn in Paris, Jan. 1, 1819. He left the military school of Metz in 1841, and has since devoted himself to researches in the most abstruse partsof mathematical science. His methods were for a long time the subject of ridicule, notwithstanding they had been approved by M. Lame and M. Poncelet. In 1858 M. Leonville gave him the use of the columns of his mathematical journal to explain his discoveries; and in 180:5, after violent opposition, he was appointed an examiner in the polytechnic school. He has published Lecons d'arithmetique (Paris, I860), and Legonsd'alge-bre (1860). treating the theory of the quantities called imaginary, and Questions societies (1869).