Eschweiler, a town of Prussia, in the province of the Rhine, on the Inde, 8 m. N. E. of Aix-la-Chapelle; pop. in 1871, 15,550. It has manufactories of iron ware, machines, needles, wire, silk goods, ribbons, and leather. In the neighborhood are lead and coal mines.


Esk, the name of several rivers of Scotland. I, A river of Dumfriesshire, formed by the junction of the Black and White Esk, runs S. E. to the English boundary, enters Cumberland, and falls into the Solway frith, after a course of about 30 m. II. A river of Edinburghshire, formed 1 1/2 m. N. of Dalkeith by the junction of two head streams called the N. and S. Esk, flows N., and empties into the frith of Forth at Musselburgh. III. North Esk, a river of Forfarshire, rises among the Grampain hills, flows S. E., chiefly along the boundary between Forfarshire and Kincardineshire, and enters the North sea near Montrose; length about 25 m. It has valuable salmon fisheries. IV. South Esk, a river of Forfarshire, rises in the Grampians, flows S. E. and E., and enters the North sea near the mouth of the North Esk. It forms a large basin at Montrose, but is navigable only a short distance from the sea. It has salmon fisheries.


Eski-Sagra, a town of European Turkey, in the province of Roumelia, on the S. slope of the Balkan, 70 m. N. W. of x\drianople; pop. about 20,000. It is in a fertile region, and near it are several mineral springs. It contains several mosques; but its general aspect is even more wretched than that of most Turkish towns. The principal manufactures are carpets and leather. Large quantities of roses are raised in the vicinity.


Esparto, a species of grass or rush belonging to the genus stipa, a native of the south of Europe and the north of Africa. It abounds in southern Spain, where it is much used in the manufacture of cordage, nets, sacks, mats, baskets, etc, for which it is well adapted by the great strength of its fibre. The sandals called alpargates, worn by the Spanish peasantry, are made from it. Esparto cables are used in the Spanish navy, being considered superior to hemp, because from their lightness they float on the water, and are not so liable to be cut by a rough bottom.


See Eszek.


Essen, a town of Prussia, in the province of the Rhine, near the Ruhr, 18 m. N. E. of Dus-seldorf; pop. in 1840, 8,009; in 1861, 20,811; in 1871, 51,526. Few German towns have increased so rapidly during the last 20 years. Its growth is owing to its flourishing manufactures of woollen and linen goods, leather, vitriol, cast-iron and steel articles, gas apparatus, and steam engines. It has of late obtained a world-wide reputation by the famous cast-steel manufactory of Krupp, the largest in the world, employing about 10,000 persons. It is supplied with water from the Ruhr by an aqueduct 4 m. long. Until the beginning of the present century the abbess of the Benedictine nunnery (founded in 873) was the ruler of the town and the adjacent country, holding from about 1275 the rank of a princess of the empire. In 1803 the town was incorporated with Prussia; it was transferred to the grand duchy of Berg in 1808, but was regained by Prussia in 1813.