Francisco De Xerez

Francisco De Xerez, a Spanish historian, who accompanied Pizarro in his conquest of Peru as secretary. At his command he wrote a detailed account of the expedition, addressed to Charles V., which was published at Salamanca in 1547, under the title of Verdadera relation de la conquista del Pirś y de la provincia del Cuzco llamada la Nueta Castilla, etc.

Translations may be found in Ramusio's and Ternaux-Campans's collections. It is sometimes appended to Oviedo's " Natural History of the Indies".

Francisco Fernandez De Cordova

Francisco Fernandez De Cordova, a Spanish navigator, born in the latter part of the 15th century, died in Cuba in 1518. He commanded a small expedition which sailed from Havana in 1517, discovered Yucatan, where he had several encounters with the natives, and touched at Florida on his return. His report led to the expedition of Juan de Grijalva, who received the credit of the discovery.

Francisco Jose De Caldas

Francisco Jose De Caldas, a naturalist of New Granada, born at Popayan about 1770, executed by order of Morillo, Oct. 30, 1816, for espousing the cause of independence. He mastered the rudiments of astronomy, botany, and medicine, and constructed a barometer and sextant, although he had not even books to guide him in his studies. He accompanied for some time the Spanish explorer, J. C. Mutis. Subsequently he explored the Andes and the Mag-dalena river, and in 1804 measured the height of Chimborazo and Tunguragua. He was afterward director of the observatory at Bogota, and in 1807 commenced the Seminario de la Nueva Granada, a scientific journal, republished at Paris in 1849, in 1 vol. large 8vo.

Francisco Manncl De Melo, Or Mello

Melo, Or Mello, Francisco Manncl De, a Portuguese historian and poet (who wrote in Spanish), born in Lisbon, Nov. 23, 1611, died there, Oct, 13, 1665. He early became familiar with literature, but entered the army and attained the rank of colonel. When the insurrection against Philip IV. broke out in Catalonia ho was sent thither, and at the request of the king he wrote Historia de los morimientos, separacion y guerra de Catalufla (Lisbon. 1645; 2 vols., Paris, 1832), which ranks as a classic. After the separation of Portugal from Spain, he entered the service of his native country, but was imprisoned under a false accusation of murder, and was for years an exile in Brazil. Many of his works are unpublished, but more than 100 volumes have been printed. His most popular poems are embraced in Las tres musas del Melodino (Lisbon, 1649).

Francisco Saverio Clavigero

Francisco Saverio Clavigero, a Mexican historian, born in Vera Cruz about 1720, died at Cesena, Italy, in October, 1793. He spent 36 years in collecting historical materials in Mexico, and acquiring the native languages, living at times entirely among the Indians, noting their traditions, and examining historical paintings, manuscripts, and monuments. After the suppression by Spain of the order of Jesuits, of which he was a member (1767), he retired to Italy, and was with other Jesuits from Spanish America assigned by the pope a residence at Cesena, where he wrote Storia antica del Messico (4 vols. 4to, Cesena, 1780-'83). The work evinces more research than judgment. Its great merit is its impartiality, especially in relating the story of the conquest by Cortes. An English translation of it by C. Cullen was published in 1787.