Jean Nicolas Laugier

Jean Nicolas Laugier, a French engraver, born in Toulon in 1785, died near Paris in 1805. He studied under Girodet in Paris, and in the school of fine arts. His engravings of Delorme's "Hero and Leander" (1817), and of Gros's "Plague-stricken at Jaffa" (1831), received gold medals. His subsequent works comprise engravings after Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael, Titian, and other masters, Poussin's "Trance of St. Paul," David's " Leonidas at Thermopylae," and Girodet's "Pygmalion and Galatea," and his portrait of Chateaubriand. While at the Boston athenaeum he made a drawing of Stuart's portrait for Leon Coi-gnet's picture of Washington.

Jean Nicolas Nicollet

Jean Nicolas Nicollet, a French explorer, born at Cluses, Savoy, July 24, 1786, died in Washington, D.C, Sept. 11, 1843. He was a pupil of Laplace, and came to the United States in 1832 for a scientific tour. After exploring the southern states, he entered the great basin embraced by the sources of the Red, Arkansas, and Missouri rivers. In 1836 he had extended his observations to the sources of the Mississippi. Returning, he was engaged by the war department to revisit the far west and prepare a general report and map for the government. In 1841 Nicollet presented to the association of American geologists a communication on the geology of the upper Mississippi and Missouri. He published Lettre sur les assurances qui ont pour base les prooabilites de la durée de la vie humaine (Paris, 1818); Mémoire sur la mesure d'un arc deparallele moyen entre le pole et l'équateur (1826); and, with Reynaud, Cours matliématique d l'usage de la marine (2 vols., 1830).

Jean Nicolas Pierre Hachette

Jean Nicolas Pierre Hachette, a French mathematician, born in Mezieres, May 6, 1769, died in Paris, Jan. 16, 1834. At the age of 19 he was made designer to the professors of physics and chemistry at the engineering school of Mezieres. In 1792 he became professor of hydrography at Collioure, in 1794 adjunct professor of descriptive geometry in the polytechnic school in Paris, and in 1810 adjunct professor in the Parisian faculty of sciences and the normal school. On the restoration he was dismissed from the polytechnic school on account of his political sentiments, and although elected a member of the academy of sciences in 1823, he was not allowed to take his seat until after the revolution of 1830. He wrote many works on mathematics and physics.

Jean Nicot

Jean Nicot, a French diplomatist, born in 1530, died in Paris, May 5, 1600. Being sent by Francis II. as ambassador to the court of Portugal, he there procured some seeds of a tobacco plant from a Flemish merchant, who had obtained them from Florida. These he brought into France, and in honor of him the botanical name Nicotiana was given to tobacco.

Jean Philippe Rameau

Jean Philippe Rameau, a French composer, born in Dijon, Oct. 25, 1683, died in Paris, Sept. 12, 1764. He was the son of an organist, and was educated for the bar, but at the age of 18 went to Italy as a violinist. He returned to Paris in 1717, and was organist in several churches. He composed anthems, cantatas, and pieces for the organ and the harpsichord, published a Traité de l'harmonie (1722) and Nouveau système de musique théorique (1726), and composed the music for several of Piron's and Voltaire's comedies and other pieces, the best being that to Pellegrin's Hip-polyte et Aricie (1733). His numerous operas and theoretical writings are now obsolete.