Johann Peter Eckermann, a German author, born at Winsen, Hanover, in 1792, died in Weimar, Dec. 3, 1854. He assisted Goethe in his last edition of his complete works, and was named in his will editor of his literary remains, which were published in 1832-,3. In 1839-'40 he edited Goethe's works complete in 40 volumes; but the work which won for him much reputation was his Gesprache mit Goethe (3 vols., Magdeburg, 1836-'48). Extracts of this work were translated into many foreign languages, including the Turkish. The first English translation was made by Margaret Fuller, and published at Boston in 1839. Another English translation by John Oxenford appeared in London in 1850.
Johann Peter Hebel, a German poet, born in Basel, May 11, 1760, died at Schwetzingen, Sept. 22, 1826. He studied at Erlangen, and in 1791 was appointed professor in the gymnasium of Carlsruhe. He became in 1805 church counsellor, and in 1819 prelate. His works include Allemannische Gedichte, written in a Swabian sub-dialect (11th ed., Aarau, 1860), of which there are five High German translations; Die biblisehen Geschichten (2 vols., 2d ed., Stuttgart, 1824); Der rheinlandische Hausfreund (3d ed., 1827); and Schatzkastlein des rheinischen Hausfreundes (last ed., 1850). His complete works were issued in 8 vols, in 1832-4; new edition, 1X71 et seq.
Johann Philipp Bronner, a German writer on wines, born at Neckargemund, near Heidelberg, in 1792, died at Wiesloch, Dec. 4, 1865. He studied pharmacy, and in 1816 became an apothecary at Wiesbaden, where he devoted himself to the natural sciences and the culture of the vine. In 1831 he established a school for instruction in viniculture. Subsequently, under a commission from the government of Baden, he travelled through Switzerland, Italy, Tyrol, Austria, Moravia, Hungary, Styria, and Bavaria, to investigate this branch of agriculture. Between 1830 and 1857 he published 14 treatises relating to wine and its production.
Johann Philipp Palm, a German publisher, born at Schorndorf, Bavaria, in 1766, executed at Braunau, Austria, Aug. 26,1806. In 1806 he received for transmission, in the course of his business as a bookseller at Nuremberg, a pamphlet entitled Deutschland in seiner tiefsten Erniedrigung ("Germany in her Greatest Degradation "), which reflected severely upon Napoleon, and particularly upon the French troops stationed in Bavaria. The emperor caused him to be arrested and conveyed to Bernadotte's headquarters at Anspach, and next to Braunau, where he was put to death. A subscription was raised for his family, and his biography was published in Munich in 1842.
Johann Rudolf Glauber, a German chemist, born in Karlstadt in 1604, died in Amsterdam in 1668. He was a physician and alchemist, boasted of wonderful secrets, and was called the Paracelsus of his age. He passed his life in his laboratory, successively at Salzburg, Frankfort, Cologne, and Amsterdam, first exhibited the production of artificial salts, and discovered the salt to which his name is given. He wrote voluminously on chemistry and al-chemy, and his works were translated into English by C. Packe (London, 1689).