July (Lat. Julius), the seventh month of the year, consisting of 31 days. By the Romans it was originally called Quintilis (quintus, fifth), it being the fifth month in the original Latin year, which before Numa began with March. The name was changed to July, by proposal of Mark Antony, in honor of Julius Caesar, who was born on the 12th of this month. In the Athenian calendar, the latter part of Sciro-phorion and the first part of Hecatombeon correspond to July. The Anglo-Saxons called it mced monath (mead month), because the meads were then in bloom, and litha ceftera (latter mild month), June being known as the "earlier mild month." Charlemagne gave it the name of Heumonat (hay month). The French revolutionary calendar merged it in the last part of Messidor and the first of Thermidor.
Juneau, a S. central county of Wisconsin, bounded E. by the Wisconsin river, and drained by Lemonweir, Yellow, and Baraboo rivers; area, about 800 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 12,372. The surface is undulating and the soil fertile. Timber is abundant. The La Crosse division of the Chicago, Milwaukee, and St. Paul railroad crosses it. The chief productions in 1870 were 192,304 bushels of wheat, 115,393 of Indian corn, 197,005 of oats, 97,755 of potatoes, 26,904 lbs. of wool, 527,027 of hops, 221,003 of butter, and 15,499 tons of hay. There were 2,04,0 horses, 2,846 milch cows, 3,982 other cattle, 8,406 sheep, and 4,959 swine; 3 manufactories of carriages, 2 of sash, doors, and blinds, 6 of tin, copper, and sheet-iron ware, 4 flour mills, and 11 saw mills. Capital, New Lisbon.
Jung-Bunzlau, Or Bunzlau (Boh. Mlada Bo-leslav), a town of Bohemia, capital of a circle, on the Iser, 30 m. N. E. of Prague; pop. in 1869, 8,695. It has 16 churches and a monastery of the Piarists, with a gymnasium. The ancient castle, which is said to have been built by Boleslas II. in the 10th century, is now used as barracks. The town stands near the site of an older Bunzlau, founded by Boleslas L, and destroyed in the Hussite and thirty years' wars.
Jungermannia, a genus of cryptogamous plants belonging to the family hepaticce or liverworts, which is closely related to the mosses; there are about 20 species in the United States, all small delicate plants, the general structure of which is described under Liverwort.
Jungfrau (the "Maiden" or "Virgin"), a picturesque mountain, or rather group of mountains, in Switzerland, forming one of the ridges of the Bernese Alps, and separating the cantons of Valais and Bern. It is 13,671 (according to others 13,718) ft. high, and derives its name either from the pure mantle of snow which covers its crest, or from the fact that until the present century it was deemed inaccessible. In 1811, however, the brothers Meyer of Aarau claimed to have ascended it. In 1828 the highest peak was reached by some peasants from Grindelwald, and in 1841 by Agassiz, accompanied by Prof. Forbes of Edinburgh and others. Although the thermometer fell to 6 1/2° below zero, lichens were found on the highest exposed points. The highest peak rises in a sharp point, its summit being not more than 2 ft. broad. The Silberhorner, which are inferior peaks on the W. side, are remarkable for their graceful forms.