Massaruni, a river of British Guiana, rising about lat. 4° 30' N., Ion. 59° 30' W., and holding an extremely circuitous course, first westward, then N. about 70 m., and finally 1ST. and N. N. E., to the extreme southerly point of the estuary of the Essequibo, in which it merges. In lat. 5° 50' N. it receives the waters of the Rupununi and becomes a wide and majestic stream. It has numerous islands. It has been explored by Hillhouse to a distance of 400 m. from its junction with the Essequibo. The navigation of the upper portion is difficult, owing to the frequent rapids and cascades. The river is celebrated as having long been supposed by geographers to form a part of the fabulous lake of Parime.


Massena, a town and village of St. Lawrence co., New York, 170 m. N. N. W. of Albany; pop. of the town in 1870, 2,560; of the village, 483. The town borders on the St. Lawrence river, and is intersected by the Grass and Raquette rivers, which afford good water power. The village is situated on Grass river, and about a mile S. E. on the W. bank of the Raquette are the Massena springs. These are saline and sulphurous, and are much resorted to in summer.


See Marseilles.


See Masinissa.

Massowah, Or Massonah

Massowah, Or Massonah, a seaport town belonging to Egypt, on an island in the Red sea, in the bay of Massowah, 250 m. N. E. of Gon-dar, and 420 m. N. W. of Aden; lat. 15° 36' N., lon. 39° 21' E.; pop. about 6,000. The island is a barren rock about 1/2 m. long, and from 300 to 400 yards broad. The harbor is deep, sheltered, and safe, and can accommodate about 50 vessels. The inhabitants have no water, save what they can collect in tanks. In 1859 the French acquired the port of Zula, about 25 m. S. of Massowah. Owing to the increasing commerce with Abyssinia and Darfoor,Massowah has of late become of great importance. Since 1805 it has been the seat of an Egyptian governor, subordinate to the governor general of Soudan. In 1874 this office was held by the Swiss traveller Werner Munzinsrer.


See Labyrinthodon.


Masuliutam, a town of British India, capital of a district of the same name, on the bay of Bengal 220 m. N. by E. of Madras; pop. about 30,000. The native town is connected by a causeway with the fort, which contains military establishments, a Protestant and a Roman Catholic church, and several residences. Cotton goods and other articles manufactured here were formerly largely exported to the Persian gulf, but this business has greatly fallen off. The central part of the town belongs to the French government, and, not being amenable to British authority, is a resort of smugglers.


Matagorda, a S. E. county of Texas, bordering on the gulf of Mexico and Matagorda bay, intersected by the Colorado river and Caney creek; area, 1,334 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 3,377, of whom 2,120 were colored. The soil of the Colorado and Caney bottoms is deep and rich, equally adapted for the cultivation of sugar and cotton. West of the Colorado are large prairies with light sandy soil clothed with luxuriant pasture. Timber (mostly oak, cedar, pecan, and hackberry) is confined to the banks of the streams. The chief productions in 1870 were 94,195 bushels of Indian corn, 13,777 of sweet potatoes, 12,285 lbs. of wool, 22,225 of butter, 1,590 bales of cotton, and 55 hogsheads of sugar. There were 2,341 horses, 808 mules and asses, 1,395 milch cows, 93,877 other cattle, 8,488 sheep, and 2,811 swine. Capital, Matagorda.